Constantine and the Zero Ayanamsa estimates
Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia
Knowledge of this precession is evident in the lineage of the astronomers/astrologers who provided advice to the Roman emperors, and other parties. Sosigenes advised Julius Caesar at the time of calendar reform in the first century BCE, when the basis of our present 365.25 day calendar was implemented. Two hundred years before this time, Aristarchus is generally cited as the earliest astronomer/astrologer to have mentioned the drifting of the seasons with respect to the background stars. Two hundred years after the time of the calendar reform, the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy is known to have written of this movement. Thus, one would have expected that by the fourth century, this knowledge would have been revered.
However it is clear that the "early christian intellectuals" such as Origen (whom elsewhere we explicate to be a non-de-plume for the fourth century historian Eusebius) thought otherwise. Eusebius reports that Origen, in his Commentary on Genesis, says:
--- Eusebius Pamphilus (PE 6.2)
The most popular sidereal zodiacs today are within one degree of each other. Each of these therfore offers a separate estimate for the "zero ayanamsa" date. That is "How long have these two zodiacs been drifting apart?" These estimates are as follows ...
221 CE (Fagan-Bradley) 291 CE (Krishnamurti) 285 CE (Lahiri ayanamsa)For anyone reading this, and thinking this is not science and/or astronomy, think again. Our calendar does not take into account precession agaist the stars. All our calendar represents is an invention by which the vernal equinox is constrained to coincide with a regularity within a certain tolerance.
The Sidereal and Tropical Zodiacs
The Indians have always used a sideral zodiac, as did the Babylonians (a fact demonstrated by Fagan). However, the Indians also have had problems in agreeing between themselves on the actual value of this ayanamsa (precession). In 1953 the Indian government tried to stepin and standardise this.
To exemplfy the various current estimates of the extent of the difference between various estimates for the ayanamsa, or precessional difference, here is a comprehensive table taken from the Ayanamsa Statistical Study, Buz Overbeck, 2007 located here. The table includes the source of the ayanamsa, the reference (SE = Swiss Ephemeris, PC = Personal Communications), the Year of Coincidence and the values for the ayanamsas and the moon calculated for 6:46:04 PM on 27 October 2006 at 32±N 150, 97±W 460, TZ +5.
|Overbeck's comparison of 23 Ayanamsa Values at 27 October 2006|
|Fagan/Bradley||SE||-24 d 50 m 10 s||221 AD||16d Sag 0 m|
|Lahiri||SE||-23 d 57 m 10 s||285 AD||16d Sag 14 m|
|De Luce||SE||-27 d 54 m 19 s||1 BC||12d Sag 56 m|
|Raman||SE||-22 d 30 m 24 s||389 AD||18d Sag 20 m|
|Sassanian||SE||-20 d 05 m 20 s||564 AD||20d Sag 45 m|
|Ushashashi||SE||-20 d 09 m 11 s||559 AD||20d Sag 41 m|
|Hipparchos||SE||-20 d 20 m 34 s||545 AD||20d Sag 30 m|
|Djwhal Khool||SE||-28 d 27 m 19 s||41 BC||12d Sag 23 m|
|Yukteshwar||SE||-22 d 34 m 28 s||292 AD||18d Sag 16 m|
|JN Bhasin||SE||-22 d 51 m 28 s||364 AD||17d Sag 59 m|
|Babylonian, Huber||SE||-24 d 43 m 43 s||229 AD||16d Sag 07 m|
|Babylonian, Kugler 1||SE||-25 d 55 m 43 s||143 AD||14d Sag 55 m|
|Babylonian, Kugler 2||SE||-24 d 31 m 43 s||243 AD||16d Sag 19 m|
|Babylonian, Kugler 3||SE||-23 d 40 m 43 s||305 AD||17d Sag 10 m|
|Babylonian, Mercier||SE||-24 d 37 m 03 s||237 AD||16d Sag 13 m|
|Galactic Center||SE||-26 d 56 m 55 s||69 AD||13d Sag 53 m|
|Krishnamurti||SE||-23 d 51 m 22 s||292 AD||16d Sag 59 m|
|Aldebaran at 15 Taurus||SE||-24 d 51 m 16 s||220 AD||15d Sag 59 m|
|Chandra-Hiri8||PC||-24 d 40 m 43 s||233 AD||16d Sag 10 m|
|Tarun Chopra9||PC||-11 d 53 m 43 s||1153 AD||28d Sag 57 m|
|Dhira10||PC||-23 d 09 m 48 s||342 AD||17d Sag 41 m|
|Krushna11||PC||-23 d 02 m 54 s||350 AD||17d Sag 47 m|
|Wilhelm Ardra12||PC||-23 d 30 m 16 s||317 AD||17d Sag 20 m|
Western astrologers, until Fagan (1970), continued to use the tropical zodiac, a picture of the sky as it was at some point in antiquity. There has been, as a response to this knowledge, a renewed interest in Sideral Astrology, by which the stars that are above our heads are pictured as they are, rather than as they were, back then, before the seasons and the stars began to drift apart.
The question then, thatmight be asked, is which single event in ancient history, might be associated with this state of affairs by which the astrological knowledge associated with the (true and real-time) sideral zodiac became "frozen" in time. A glance at the above table of estimated zero ayanamsa dates reveals that the Council of Nicaea, 325 CE, is situated in this impact zone.
The edict of Constantine concerning Easter and the Vernal Equinox has been codified by algorithm in thousands of computer programs which use a standard western Gregorian calendar. Followers of western tropical zodiac astrology are seeing themselves as the stars were in the fourth century -- an image frozen in time. It is an intriguing state of affairs.