FAQ: Constantine’s 4th century Invention of the Christian Religion



Is Christianity an organic or an invented religion?


Christianity was an invented religion. Unambiguous evidence of Christianity, the New Testament, Christians and Jesus, does not exist before the appearance of the Constantine Bible.



Did Jesus Christ really exist?


No. Like Bilbo Baggins, Gandalf the Grey and Harry Potter, he was a literary invention.


Where did Christianity really come from (Geographically)?




What are the true origins of the literature of Christianity?


The canonical books were fabricated under the commission of Constantine, with Eusebius as their editor-in-chief, between 312 and 324 CE.  The non canonical books were authored between 325 and 336 CE as a Alexandrian Greek reaction to the status and integrity of the Constantine Bible, perhaps by Arius of Alexandria, but were the subject of censorship, military search and destroy missions, destruction, burning, prohibition and imperial damnatio memoriae.



What historical and archaeological evidence is there for the Historical Jesus?


The New Testament: claimed as primary evidence, but was fabricated.

Eusebius’s “Church History etc”: claimed as secondary evidence, but was forged.

Mention in Josephus claimed from the 4th century, but was interpolated by Eusebius.

Mention in Pliny claimed from the 15th century, but no manuscript survives.

Mention in Tacitus claimed from 11th century of “Chrestians” – ultraviolet reveals tampering

Mentions in Suetonius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucian, Galen etc are interpolations

The Persecutions are Eusebian propaganda, “The Martyrs of Palestine” is fiction.

Unambiguous Inscriptions and Papyri, securely dated do not exist before the 4th century

Primary dating via C14 is being overlooked, secondary dating of paleography is being used as a category of primary dating.

Three different types of Christian architecture have been conjectured: Christian Churches, Christian Church-Houses and Christian House-Churches. Of these there are no examples of the former two categories, and one disputed example of the latter. A dwelling located at Dura-Europos on the Persian border is often cited as a Christian House-Church on the basis of the appreciation of its murals, which were shipped to Yale Divinity College c.1930.  Christian art is non existent before the emperor centric images of the 4th and later centuries. See the pillar of Constantine of c.330 CE



Is the Bible an amalgam of contemporary religious and spiritual beliefs? Of which century?


YES, but also of literary works.  The 4th century sees the necessary ingredients appear naturally.



Was Christianity invented to justify and complete a concept of heresy/infidel?


YES.  In the Letters of John the prescription of the most abominable antichristian behaviour is described by those unbelievers who refused to confess that Jesus had appeared in “the flesh” – in history.  These people were to be known as the “antichrist”.  The authority of the Emperor was placed behind the integrity of the new testament, and anyone who ridiculed or questioned the sacred scriptures represented an affront to the majesty of the Emperor.


Was Christianity invented to justify conquest and imperialism?


Retrospectively, the New Testament might be perceived as a political manifesto against everything in the Greek civilisation, particularly any and all formalized religious cults. Once all religious opposition was destroyed by the end of the 4th century, rulers of subsequent centuries used the Christian religion to justify conquest and imperialism.


Was Christianity seen by Romans of the 4th century as a bulwark to Persian monotheism?


Yes, its purpose was to strengthen and unify the Roman Empire against the strong and vigorous new centralized state monotheism of the Sassanid Persian empire, Zoroastrianism, that had been established by Ardashir c.224 CE, at that precise time he acquired military supremacy.


Was Christianity used as the moral code of conquest by the Romans to claim the East?


Retrospectively Christianity was introduced in the surviving histories as the religious ideology by which Constantine’s professional Christian Crusade vanquished the last of the non Christian persecutors in the Eastern Empire c.324 CE.  However, the military victory and supremacy of Constantine was immediately characterized by acts of fascist despotism. The Constantine Bible in its replication fifty times, characterized the use of technology as an authority, by the many Bishops, each of whom Constantine personally appointed.



Did Constantine’s conversion to Christianity mark the culmination of efforts of those promoting the religion?


There are two Constantine conversion “legends” – one prior to the victory at the Milvian Bridge, and the other on his deathbed. Both are controversial. Both are retrospectively developed by the Christian Victor describing the Victory.  One historian quipped on the former that “Constantine managed to convince himself he’d had a religious experience”.


Was his conversion to Christianity the culmination of Constantine’s own ambitions?


Did he convert to his own religion for the people? (See above). Constantine personally appointed his bishops and considered himself to be “Bishop of Bishops”.  He left instructions that he wished to be buried as “The Thirteenth Apostle”, and he legislated and fought at the head of his army in a Christian crusade against the last of the persecutors.


Why does Constantine become Emperor of a New Religion?


Constantine sought sole power and authority in all matters - state and religion.  He created a new religion so as to usurp the power and authority of the heads of all other existing religions and cults of that era, and to unify the empire. 


How much was Constantine involved with the production of the first bibles at Nicaea?


Constantine had commissioned their authorship, editorship and manufacture after securing Rome and the assault on the Eastern empire became viable. 


How was the bible produced?


Constantine exploited the recently appearance of the codex technology. Physically, these earliest codices were manufactured in an imperially controlled scriptorium, under the editor-in-chief of Eusebius of Caesarea.


What was the reaction of Constantine supporters in the empire to the Bible?


Constantine offered very attractive tax exemptions and other benefits to his new Clergy of Bishops and their families.  Some cities immediately petitioned Constantine declaring that they were entirely Christian.  At least one rich pagan landholder had dreams which lead him to convert to the Christian life, while there were so many rich pagans who attempted to enter the clergy that Constantine had to legislate against excessive support.


What was the reaction of Constantine detractors in the empire to the Bible?


Those Alexandrian Greeks who did not believe in the Bible at all, publicly ridiculed the sacred scriptures in the theatres.  The reaction was controversy. See Arius.


Imperial expansion: what is retained, what is destroyed, what is built in the name of the new Emperor?


The most ancient and highly revered temples to Asclepius (the Healing God, son of Apollo, son of Zeus) were destroyed to their foundations.  Christian basilicas are constructed over these foundations.  This practice was to be continued by Christian emperors for centuries.


Who were the new religious leaders, and how were they appointed?


Constantine personally appointed his Christian Bishops. He considered himself to be the “Bishop of Bishops”.  These positions were allocated throughout the dioceses of the Roman Empire


Church and state – which became powerful?


Both supported each other and both became powerful.  By means of persecution and destruction the church killed off it’s so-called heretics and became the supremely dispensed religion in the empire by the end of the 4th century.  The orthodox church which was defined by its following of the canonical books in the Constantine Bible was the eventual victor, and rewrote the history of the conflict from Nicaea.


Who were the main characters of these times?



325-337 CE

Constantine and his select group of barbarian chieftains.

Eusebius and his scriptoria of select professional scribes.

Arius of Alexandria and the Alexandrian Platonists as the “Gnostics”

Pachomius, the Monastic settlements


337-360 CE

Constantius II and the other sons of Constantine.

Athanasius and his scriptoria of select professional scribes

The gnostic and Arian heretics

Pachomius, the Monastic settlements and the Nag Hammadi Codices


361-363 CE

Emperor Julian


363-444 CE

END GAME characters



How did these characters interact to establish and build the early church?


Constantine and his select group of barbarian chieftains fought to establish the church.

Eusebius and his scriptoria of select professional scribes fabricated the new testament and history.

Arius of Alexandria and the Alexandrian Platonists as the “Gnostics” represent the resistance

Pachomius, the Monastic settlements represent the refugees fleeing Christianity


How did they make it so powerful and long-lasting?


It was an emperor cult and was cultivated from the top down. Once the opposition religions were prohibited, the orthodox followers of the authoritarian Constantine falsified the legitimacy of their own history, and censored the true nature of the Arian controversy.




Who won and who lost?


Constantine won supreme control of the Roman empire 324 CE

The temple based religions were destroyed or prohibited 325 CE

The books of Plato and Euclid via Porphyry were burned 325 CE

The Constantine Bible was replicated 50 times 325 CE

The books, name and memory of Arius of Alexandria were subject to imperial “damnatio memoriae”

The Gnostic authors briefly won popularity but were eradicated with their books.

The orthodox followers of the Constantine Bible became supreme.



Is religion seen by leaders as a method of social control?


Seneca is reported to have written that “Religion is true for the common people, false for the wise and useful for the ruler.”   The more power the ruler has the more useful the religion becomes.  When the ruler has absolute and supreme power, the religion becomes absolutely and supremely useful to the ruler.


Do such leaders implement rules and laws accordingly?


YES.  Constantine legislated for and on behalf of the Christian Church. These laws are available via the Codex Theodosianus.  Examples include:

“Religious privileges are reserved for Christians”

“At death people shall have the right to leave property to the church”


Does society need these sorts of rules to actually exist?


NO.  These are Draconian laws. (“Throw-Back” even by 4th century standards).

Constantine’s rule is described by one of his Praetorian prefects as “not golden but Neronian”.


Influence from the East: Buddhism, Manichaeanism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, colonies of Alexander


The Manichaean problem had worried Diocletian. Large numbers had converted in the 3rd century. The Romans did not want to tolerate a high profile Persian sage. They wanted someone within the Roman Empire.


Roads from the East – assimilation


Roads to the East – Conquest


Constantine staked the gold reserves he obtained in Briton to raise mercenaries to take Rome, and the gold reserves he obtained in Rome for his conquest of the “Jackpot” – the gold reserves of the Eastern Empire.


Constantine’s armies – why did he win the battles?


Constantine was a very successful general who lead the army and fought at its head.  He valued patiently gathering intelligence about his progressive campaigns. 


What was the legacy of these conquests?


The final legacy was the “capture” of the Eastern Empire, which Constantine conquered as a Christian crusader against the last of the persecutors.  The legacy was supreme military control of the entire Roman empire. 


How was Christendom established (the kingdom of the church and the kingdom of god)?


By the support of the people who desired to support the new supreme ruler of the empire, and by the sword and the army, and by the construction of Christian Churches and the appointment of Christian Bishops in all the dioceses.


How were Christian Councils of authority established in antiquity?


(1) The Council of Antioch (324 CE)

(2) The Council of Nicaea (325 CE)

(3) The Council of _____ (336 CE)

(4) The Councils of Constantius (337-360 CE)

(5) The Councils of the Endgame (363-444 CE)


Constantine’s Chief Agent Ossius convened most of the earlier councils, while Constantine was personally present.  Evidence suggests that the attendees were under military duress. The authority was the Emperor.  


How were Bishops and Popes established in authority in antiquity?


The role of “Pontifex Maximus” as the collegiate head of all the “Pontifices” of the religious cults extends back to the 7th century BCE.  Julius Caesar bribed his way into the role in 63 BCE. Between 63 BCE and c.367 CE the role was held by the Roman Emperors. The list of bishops and popes provided by Eusebius for the period before Nicaea is fabricated. Constantine personally appointed the first bishops, and popes.  In Rome c.367 CE prospective “Bishops” and their armies fought openly in the streets of Rome for the prestige of the position.  Damasius won this battle and became the Bishop of Rome.  Soon after, when the emperor refused the role of “Pontifex Maximus”, Damasius assumed it and became the first Christian Bishop “Pontifex Maximus”. The role has stayed with the Roman Catholic Church ever since.


How may the move from Pan-Hellenic empire to Christian Empire be described?


As a successful hostile takeover, by means of a fabricated Emperor cult which valued the Constantine Bible over and above all other literature of the Pan-Hellenic civilisation.


What was really destroyed in the library of Alexandria?


The absolute lack of any mention of either Jesus, the books of the new testament, the Christian church and/or “Christians”.  This appearance of lack of authenticity was an embarrassment to the popularity of the dominant Christian regime. 


Where else were libraries destroyed?


Yes.  There were major libraries associated with the major temples of Asclepius at Aegae and Pergamum and elsewhere which were utterly destroyed by Constantine’s army c.324/325 CE and afterwards. 


When did we begin to measure years from Anno Domino?


The system was devised in 575 CE but not widely used until the late 8th century.


Georgian calendar 500 CE made birth of HJ zero coinciding with reign of Augustus, start of new Age of Aquarius, star of the east, conjunction of planets?


Time was to be recorded from the new god of the Christian Age. Since Jesus did not exist if we need to name a person for the beginning of the age it might be Apollonius of Tyana.


Did scribes fiddle with historiographies to account for and justify biblical events?


Yes. It seems to be a tradition.


What is the link between astronomers and astrologers, scribes and religious leaders, military and heads of state?


The elite of the educated classes were represented on the “Sacred” and “Collegiate Assembly of the Pontifices” – who traditionally served and advised the succession of Emperors in various matters.  


Who manipulated who?


The powerful classes manipulated those classes with less power, who in turn manipulated those classes with lesser power; and so on into slavery.


Was power a two-way street or did the Emperor hold the power?


The Emperor held the power over the army, so long as he paid them in gold. 


Is the Emperor answerable to God?


The succession of Emperor’s each patronized various divinities, and perhaps saw themselves as in service to these Gods. 

Has the collection of historical data accelerated over the last fifty years?


There have been an increasing number of recent archaeological and manuscript discoveries that have been entirely managed by the academic community rather than Church Officials.  Earlier the Dead Sea Scrolls discovery was wrested from Church officials by the academic community. English translations of the Nag Hammadi Codices were published in the 1970’s. Perhaps the most recent data is the discovery, translation and publication of the Gnostic “Gospel of Judas”, which was completed in a few years by National Geographic.


Has there been an increase in multi-disciplinary co-operation over the last fifty years?


Yes. The increasing trend in specialization continues to support the increase of multi-disciplinary studies, and many aspects of co-operation have been enhanced since the 1990’s by the emergence of the internet.  The invention of radiocarbon dating has provided new insights into the age of Gnostic manuscripts, and the invention of multi-spectral imaging has enabled previously illegible ancient writings, on papyri fragments etc, to become far more legible.


Are long held concepts of our past being questioned?


Yes. People are free to ask questions that in centuries past would not have been tolerated by the religious communities and the church.


If the data does not fit the theory, must the theory be changed?


Yes.  The theory of the historical Jesus after centuries of research does not appear to be supported at all by the available evidence.  This theory is based on the postulate or the hypothesis that there was a real historical Jesus.  The data suggests that this postulate could be wrong, and that the preferred postulate to be explored is that there was no real historical Jesus. Theories based on this postulate are often termed “Myth Theories”.  


Is the bible and Christianity more the product of the 4th century than the 1st?


Yes. To the extent that Christians preferred to use the codex (a manufactured book) rather than the scroll, Christianity appears as a product of the 4th century.  When the history available to the 1st and 4th century is compared, there are a great number of events and historical figures in the 2nd and 3rd and 4th centuries which, if taken into account, suggest that Christianity was produced of the 4th century.


Were a myriad of religious and spiritual beliefs replaced by allegiance to one belief?


Yes.  The Roman Empire had no religious unity, and had been driven for centuries according to a religious tradition which was based on collegiate tolerance and general acceptance of a great milieu of competing religions and cults.  Prior to Nicaea Constantine commenced to destroy the most ancient and highly revered religious cults to Asclepius and Apollo.  In some cases he set examples by publicly executing the head priests. In all cases the traditional practices of the temple cults were prohibited, and the prohibition was enforced by the army. At Nicaea, Constantine pushed for the acceptance of the monotheistic state religion of Christianity based upon the authority of the Constantine Bible.  Although he failed in his bid to have the Constantine Bible canonized in his lifetime, the lion’s share of the Constantine Bible was canonized c.367 CE, sometime after the death of Emperor Julian.


How was technology exploited in the promotion of Christianity?


The Codex was revealed as the critical technology.  With the codex the written word could now be preserved for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, without much deterioration.  It was a physical object containing what was represented to be “Divine Scripture” that could only be interpreted by that very small minority who could read. 


What were the economic forces which favored the development of Christianity as the dominant trading managers of the region?


“War is a Racket” writes Smedley Butler, and there is no doubt that Constantine was at war. New economic opportunities arose following the Nicaean agreement and his personal appointment of Bishops throughout the empire. These were very influential positions with attractive benefits.  Although by the year c.350 CE land tax had tripled within living memory, the Christian Bishops and clergy and their families enjoyed a tax exempt status.  Within Constantine’s rule, the authority of the bishops in matters of law exceeded the civil magistrates.


Where did the money come from into the church?


Prior to Nicaea there were a great selection of divinities and cults and temples that attracted sponsorship and donations from all classes of people. After Nicaea, these were essentially replaced with a centralized state religion, which tended to attract all the sponsorship and donation.  The strength of this church was augmented by imperial laws, for example: “At death people shall have the right to leave property to the church”.  The ancient temples of the Greek civilisation gave up their lands and gold and silver and treasures to the conquest of Constantine.  The construction of many Christian basilicas throughout the empire by Constantine during his rule has been assessed as the most expensive and lavish building project undertaken by any ruler in antiquity using precious stone.


Did conversions to Christianity mean a better trading deal with Roman interests?


Yes.  After Nicaea anyone dealing with the Roman interests was dealing in Christian interests. Also as an example, Constantine is known to have offered barbarian tribes gold in order to convert to the Christian religion.


Can the rapid spread of Christianity be partly explained with a link to trade?


The foundation of the rapid spread of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire which happened during Constantine’s rule after Nicaea can be best explained with a link to the army.  The personal appointment by Constantine of his bishops was to his most trusted agents, some of which were influential people and landholders outside the army, while others were those trusted agents and chiefs who had served with Constantine in his victorious army. 



What were the economic advantages of founding a new capital of Rome in the East – Constantinople?


It was a new city, fitting for a new regime.  The ancient eastern capital city, the City of Alexander,  was essentially recycled of its treasures, its sculpture, its artwork etc, which were taken to service the new City of Constantine.  Byzantium was prestigiously located on the trade-routes to the East, and placed at the mouth between a vast inland sea and the Mediterranean. It thus had opportunity to regulate and tax all goods moving through it.


To what extent did Christianity exploit the tourist and pilgrim market in antiquity?


The first Christian pilgrim to the “Holy Land” was Constantine’s mother-in-law Eutropia, while the second Christian pilgrim was Constantine’s Mother Helena.  Eutropia reported to Constantine the existence of pagan temples, and Constantine destroyed these structures and constructed Christian basilicas.  Helena was officially reported to have personally located the wooden cross upon which Jesus had been crucified, and the nails by which he was thereto affixed. Tradition has it that Constantine used the metal to make bits for his horses’ bridles.


The real tourist market was established in Rome by “Pontifex Maximus Damasius” who renovated the Roman catacombs c.370 CE , and established a tourist market for holy relics, the tombs and bones of the apostles.  By the late 4th century, the tourist trade included the bones and relics of the Martyrs and the Saints, such as Cosmas and Damien.


What language is used in the earliest bibles?


The language is Common Greek, as distinct from Attic Greek.  All the evidence available points to Greek exemplars, and not Hebrew or Aramaic.   The earliest Greek new testament codices extant today are from the 4th century, and include Codex Vaticanus, Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Sinaticus.


When did Latin become popular?


At the end of the 4th century, a number of Latin translations of the Greek writings of the Bible, and of associated literature (such as Eusebius’s Church History, etc) were translated from the Greek into the Latin.  For example Jerome, under the tutelage of Damasius translated the Bible to Latin, which was known as the Vulgate.  Also Rufinus translated Origen and Eusebius from Greek to Latin.


Was Christianity a rejection or an adaptation of current scientific ideas?


Rejection. Euclid and Plato, preserved in the books of Porphyry, were ordered to be burnt after the Council of Nicaea, while the Constantine Bible was replicated 50 times over.

Was there a new science with a new morality?


If there was any science it was heresiology, or the science of Christian heresies, It is sufficient to point out that all the orthodox Christians of the 4th century were heresiologists.


What was the difference between a priest and a bishop?


The term priest will generally apply to leaders of the non Christian religions and cults, while the term bishop will generally be applied to the leaders of the Christian religion. The priesthoods of the Graeco-Roman religious cults and religions were ubiquitous and very diverse prior to the Council of Nicaea.  However they were scattered and disbanded and generally made redundant following Constantine’s prohibition of the temples c.324/325 CE. After Nicaea, the Bishops become ubiquitous and the priests very scarce.  In 341 CE the orthodox bishops of the Dedication Council at Antioch declared:


"We are not followers of Arius; for how could we,

 who are bishops, be disciples of a priest?"


How did becoming Christian change one’s social status?


It conformed one to the religion embraced by the Emperor.  On the other hand, refusing to acknowledge the majesty of the Emperor’s religion – for example following the Council of Antioch – might attract torture, in order to confess one’s error.


What was the role of the Emperor in the hierarchy?


Constantine considered himself to be the “Bishop of Bishops” and thus the head of the hierarchy.  He left express wishes to be buried as the “Thirteenth Apostle”.  Constantine was at the center of a vast web of power and intrigue.


Did Christianity bring with it a change fashions, uniforms of bishops (toga to tunic?), new fabrics, chain mail?


Many fashions changed with Nicaean Christianity.


When did the Cross first commence to be worshipped?


In the 4th century.  Constantine’s mother Helena is reported to found the original. 


When did the Saints and Martyrs first commence to be worshipped?


At the end of the 4th century.  The first Christian Saint appears inside a book written by Athanasius c.350 CE entitled “The Life of Anthony”, whereas the first Martyrs appear inside a book written by Eusebius called “The  Martyrs of Palestine”.  The earliest saints include Cosmas and Damien, the saints of the medical profession, who replaced the therapeutae of Asclepius.


When and where did trading first commence in Holy Relics, Bones, etc?


The earliest industry may have been established in Rome under “Pope” Damasius in the decades following the death of Emperor Julian.  Damasius started the “Peter was Here in Rome” industry, and is known to have renovated some of the Roman catacombs.   At the end of the 4th century such trading was very popular.



Did Christianity play a major or minor role in unifying the Roman Empire?


Christianity played a major role in the unification of the Roman Empire, which had previously been host to a collegiate of disparate religious cults. 



What were the changes in education as a result of Christianity?


If the burning of Porphyry containing Euclid and Plato is any indication, much education was set aside for the study of the books of Moses and Constantine. Whatever it is that may be defined by the Greek civilisation, it went out of the Roman Empire to be preserved by the Persian, Arabian and later Islamic civilisation, before it was reintroduced to Europe almost a millennium later.


How were the monasteries established?


It is a generally recognized fact that Pachomius established the monastic settlements in the early part of the 4th century, such as the monastery near Nag Hammadi, theorized to have been involved in the manufacture of the Nag Hammadi Codices in the years leading up to c.348 CE. Pachomius seems to have experienced a “vision” c.324 CE which led him away from the city of Alexandria and hundreds of miles up the Nile.  What was this “vision”? Ammianus describes Constantine’s destruction of the greatest of the obelisks in Egypt, that had been left standing after the Roman conquest of Egypt. Having no regard for its antiquity and its having been dedicated to the sun god, Constantine ripped it from its foundations.


Were there new buildings and new cities?


Christian churches, called basilicas, started to appear with great frequency in the cities of the Roman Empire.  Constantinople, the City of Constantine, was lavishly appointed in statues, art work, and with the gold and silver and treasure previously located in the City of Alexander. 


Was there a reconstruction of the old buildings, or were the old destroyed?


The old temples were often destroyed to their foundations, and the foundations used to support the construction of the basilicas. 


Did Constantine invent the Bible or did the Mediterranean region do this?


The Bible consists of two separate sections both written in Greek and both using a series of unique scribal abbreviations known as the “nomina sacra”. The old section of the Bible is often called the Old Testament or the Hebrew Bible.  The specific text used by Constantine is known as the Greek LXX, and it was compiled at least by the mid 3rd century, perhaps by the Platonist Origen.  To this was added the New Testament.  Constantine sponsored Eusebius as the Editor-In-Chief of a project to fabricate the books of the New Testament, which was undertaken between the years of 312 and 324 CE.   


Was a unifying force needed or required in the empire?


In matters of religion, since c.222CE, the Persians were united by means of a centralized monotheistic state religion, the basis of which was a canonized “Holy Writ”.   The Persian army had since been vigorous and there had been a number of Roman embarrassments, where Roman emperors and entire legions had been captured by the Persians.  On the other hand, until Constantine’s appearance, in matters of religion, the Roman Empire was not united in any sense of the word.  There was a great milieu of religions and cults.


To what extent was there anarchy in the empire when Constantine came to power?


Constantine inherited the reforms that had been established by Diocletian during the stabilizing rule from 280 to 305 CE.  The empire had been divided geographically into units called “dioceses”.  Data from these regions had been collected, much like a “Domesday Book” which recorded the population, the land and the industry, and which was used to provide some estimation of future imperial taxation revenue. Inflation has been studied in the Roman Empire, and it was rampant in the epoch of Diocletian and Constantine. Prior to Diocletian’s rule it might be said there was anarchy, with dozens of emperors coming and going over a few decades.


Were the ideas of “Christ”, “Saviour”, “Ressurrection”, “Trinity”, God, Law-Givers new?


The idea of “Christ” seems to be novel, however it also seems to be very much related to, and possibly conflated with, the idea of “Chrest”.  The word “Christos” is related to “anointed” whereas the word “Chrestos” is related to “the Good”.  An examination of the actual evidence demonstrates the pre-existence of “Chrestic archaelogy”, and a concerted polemic by the orthodox to conflate “Chrestos” as an earlier form of “Christos”.


The idea of “Saviour” was popularly perceived throughout the Empire in the form of the Graeco-Roman healing god Asclepius. Most emperors up to and including Diocletian patronized Asclepius, however there was a great milieu of religious cults, or various antiquity, and each had their own ideas of salvation, etc.


The notion of resurrection was not foreign to the legends associated with Asclepius, who had to promise to stop raising people from the dead.  Apollonius of Tyana, a priest of Asclepius is also reported to have performed a resurrection.


The metaphysics of Plato (via Plotinus) according to Bertram Russell begins and ends with a Holy Trinity known as the “One Spirit Soul”.  The Holy Trinity of the Platonists was essentially commandeered by the “academy of Christians” after the Council of Nicaea.


The “God” or “divinity” described by the Platonists was “nondual”, whereas that defined by the Constantine Bible was monotheistic.  In the sense that Plato and Socrates were “Law Givers” in the philosophical sense, Eusebius’s chronological research asserted that these Greeks were inferior to Moses and the Hebrew sages.



Did the Barbarian insurgences and resultant population growth effect Christianity?


Barbarian mercenaries were frequently employed in the Roman army. Alliances between a number of influential barbarian tribes had been cemented by Constantius Chlorus (Constantine’s father) and these were “inherited” by Constantine were he rose to power in Briton c.305 CE.  It is possible that from that time onwards Constantine dismissed the traditional Roman Praetorian Guard which used to surround the Emperor, and instead replaced them with a close-knit group of Barbarian chieftains.


To what extent did Christianity present an ideology acceptable to all people (ie: Roman and Barbarian alike)?


There was a great deal of power placed in the physical books or codices called the Bible, which had been replicated from the Constantine Bible.  The book was read in the basilicas by the Bishop or one of his readers to the people.  It provided a new unification in the empire, and new opportunities for advancement with the rise of the Christian clergy.



What is the history of Easter, and how was this absorbed by Christianity?


Almost an entire hemisphere full of living creatures in symphony with the seasons all celebrated the arrival of the Spring (vernal) equinox as a herald of the summer sun.  This festival was co-opted by Constantine at the Council of Nicaea.   


Does the concept of salvation and after-life (held for thousands of years by Egypt) hold the key?


The ancient world has always had such ancient concepts and ideas, and there is little doubt that many of the ancient Greek ideas were derived from the Egyptians. The Romans in adopting the Greek ideas, and the Greek language itself, also psychologically adopted these concepts from Egypt, which in turn may have been influenced from as far a field as India.


To what extent were these “Upper Class” concepts – spiritual ideology, salvation for every person?


These philosophical concepts were always being discussed by the philosophers who addressed some or all of the classes of people in antiquity.  To a more limited extent they were committed to writing, such as for example “Meditations” of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius.  With written literature, literacy was a great benefit, and was not available equally to all classes. 


Are the soldiers of the 4th century fighting for god?


Many soldiers were mercenaries, who fought for gold. 


What or who were they fighting for in the 4th century, and before the 4th century?


Barbarian tribes were increasingly sought by Roman emperors to augment the Roman army.  The Roman army was perhaps the most dominant social force in the empire, because there was often great opportunity to advance oneself irrespective of social status. The army fought for the Emperor so long as he continued to pay them their wages and their gold.


Did the Persians have a rejuvenated form of monotheism?


In the early third century c.222 CE the Persian "King of Kings" Ardashir created a new State monotheistic religion which he actively promoted, organized, supported and protected, by legislation. He guaranteed its orthodoxy by the sword. It was characterised by a strong centralised power structure, centered on the King and his appointed Magi (i.e. academic temple priests, and their chiefs). A gifted researcher and high cleric of this religion in the tradition named Tansar was ordered to gather the scattered "Avesta" of the Mazdeans from ancient sources, and to edit these in order to reproduce an authorised and canonical version of the "Avesta", the holy writ of Zoroastrianism. Finally the Sassanid state monotheistic church was characterised by widespread architectural replication of square fire-temples for the official religion throughout the major cities and provinces of the Sassanid Persian empire. 


Should the Roman Empire have something similar to counter the Persian threat?


Yes. It was a cold war. 


What were the typical Roman battle and campaign tactics?


Establishment of a permanent army came early. They were the professional rulers of their empire for many centuries. 


Who was the real enemy of the Romans?


There are a number of ways to answer this question, but I’ll follow Terry Jones and say the real enemy of the Romans were the barbarians.  There were Greek "barbarians" (Archimedes speared by a Roman soldier), Irish Celtic "barbarians", British Celtic "barbarians" (and the  Druidic priesthoods), Scottish Celtic "barbarians", Gallic Celtic "barbarians", Germanic Celtic "barbarians", Dacian Celtic "barbarians", Jewish and Hebrew "barbarians", Parthian or Persian "barbarians", Goths, Visigoths and Astrogoth "barbarians", the Vandals etc "barbarians", the mysterious Huns …  All who were non-Roman, were "barbarians".



Who is liberated with Christianity?


The opportunists who sided with Constantine’s agenda found themselves very powerful and influential men. 


Who is oppressed with Christianity?


Anyone who disagreed with Constantine’s agenda was oppressed.  The books of the greatest contemporary Greek academics on Euclid and Plato were burnt. The temples of the Graeco-Roman religions and cults were destroyed and/or prohibited to be used. In some instances the Head Priests of these temples were publicly executed – perhaps to set an example. Orders sent by Constantine after the Council of Antioch suggest he had dissenters amidst the philosophers and elite torture to confess the error or their ways by not subscribing to the Christian agenda. Attendees at the Council of Nicaea are forced to vote on the canonization of the new testament and Constantine Bible under military duress.  (See Robin Lane-Fox’s “Pagans and Christians”)


So who really wrote the New Testament?


The New Testament was the product of a “Special Codex Project” sponsored by Constantine, and overseen by Eusebius as its Editor-In-Chief, involving at least one scriptorium of professionally trained scribes. 


How was the Old Testament compiled?


The Greek translation of the Old Testament, now known as the LXX, or the Septuagint, was of great interest to a 3rd century academic Greek author in Alexandria called Origen the Platonist. Eusebius apparently inherited the library of Origen, who is known to have authored the “Hexapla”, a multi-column publication outlining various Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible.  Origen’s Greek translation of the LXX was used in Constantine’s Bible.


Why was the Old Testament used as a basis for the New Testament?


It provided an antiquity for the Hebrews that was asserted to be greater than that of the the Greek civilisation.  The books of Moses were being held up by Eusebius as greater than those of Plato.  With this foundation, the Greek LXX was data-mined for phrases and prophecies which would appear in the books of the New Testament.


Was the crucifixion of political and religious agitators common or rare in antiquity?


According to his epitome the Roman historian Florus Quintilius Varus, in the very early 2nd century 2,000 Jews of the town Emmaus were crucified by order of Trajan.  Trajan was considered to be one of a series of five “Good Emperors”.  On an inscription from Trajan in the “Temple of Augustus, Ankara, Turkey”, we find death and Roman ruthlessness on a grand scale. “Three times I gave gladiatorial shows in my own name, and five times in the name of my sons or grandsons, in which shows, about 10,000 men fought to the death”. The Romans themselves were brutal.


Was Christianity a product of 1st century Palestine?


The evidence of the 1st Century has been examined with great care many times by great minds. There appears to be a vacuum of evidence with respect to anything “Christian” in 1st century.    


Was Christianity a product of 4th century Mediterranean culture?


There are a number of sources available to the 4th century Roman culture out of which Christianity was fabricated.  The history of the Persian sage Mani and that of his followers, the Manichaeans would have been available perhaps in Rome, where a Manichaean monastery is known to have existed c.312 CE.  But they needed a Roman sage, or at least the story of sage somewhere within the Roman Empire, and one who was not Greek.  Apollonius of Tyana and the temple networks of Asclepius were related.


How does the Jesus story fit with the world of the 4th century?


Research of all the available evidence of the first five centuries of the common era suggests that Jesus and Christians first appeared on planet Earth with the Constantine Bible c.325 CE.  This of course caused a major social, intellectual, philosophical and religious controversy at that time.  Arius of Alexandria is cast as the anti-Christ by multiple orthodox heresiologists, and is subject to Constantine’s pronouncement of “damnatio memoriae” on his books, his name, and his remembrance in the empire. 


What books did Arius of Alexandria write?


The same research suggests that Arius of Alexandria may have been the historical author of the core series of what are now known as the “Gnostic Gospels and Acts”.  Eusebius informs us that the Constantine Bible was ridiculed in the theatres of the unbelievers during the Arian controversy.  These “Gnostic Gospels and Acts” are in a sense parodies of the Constantine Bible, and in some cases satires against the apostles and the church.  Because it was forbidden to mention the name of Arius at that time, and for some time thereafter, a new name began to be associated with the authorship of these books – Leucius Charinus.  Eusebius’s chronology for the appearance of “The Acts of Pilate” is  inaccurate, but provides the heresiological perspective that is to be expected from Eusebius.  This text reveals the two scribes “Leucius” and “Karinus” are the authors.