Of the modes of persuasion furnished
by the spoken word there are three kinds. [...]
Secondly, persuasion may come through the hearers,
when the speech stirs their emotions. [...]
Thirdly, persuasion is effected through the speech itself
when we have proved a truth or an apparent truth by means
of the persuasive arguments suitable to the case in question.
In medieval universities, the trivium comprised the three subjects taught first: grammar, logic, and rhetoric. The word is a Latin term meaning "the three ways" or "the three roads" forming the foundation of a medieval liberal arts education. This study was preparatory for the quadrivium. The quadrivium comprised the four subjects, or arts, taught in medieval universities after the trivium. The word is Latin, meaning "the four ways" or "the four roads": the completion of the liberal arts. The quadrivium consisted of arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. These followed the preparatory work of the trivium made up of grammar, logic (or dialectic, as it was called at the times), and rhetoric. In turn, the quadrivium was considered preparatory work for the serious study of philosophy and theology.
Grammar is the mechanics of a language; logic (or dialectic) is the "mechanics" of thought and analysis; rhetoric is the use of language to instruct and persuade. Sister Miriam Joseph described the three parts of the Trivium thus:
Another description is:
The following schematic presents the arrangements of this system of educational disciplines, and shows how Aristotle's Three Modes of Persuasion in Rhetoric fit into the bigger picture.
The three basic elements of the "Trivium"
-- Grammar, Logic and Rhetoric --
(rhetoric being further sub-classified
into Ethos, Pathos and Logos)
are the prerequisites for the
four subjects of the Quadrivium
- Arithetic, Geometry, Music and Astronomy.
These become the preparatory for
the "serious Higher education"
involving Philosophy and Theology.
|Aristotle's Three Modes of Persuasion in Rhetoric|
|Ethos||Appeal to the audience's sense of honesty and/or authority|
|Pathos||Appeal to the audience's sense of emotions|
|Logos||Appeal to the audience's sense of logic|
Ethos is a Greek word originally meaning "accustomed place", "custom, habit", equivalent to Latin mores. Ethos forms the root of ethikos, meaning "moral, showing moral character". To the Greeks ancient and modern, the meaning is simply "the state of being", the inner source, the soul, the mind, and the original essence, that shapes and forms a person or animal. Ethos is an appeal to the authority or honesty of the speaker. It is how well the speaker convinces the audience that he or she is qualified to speak on the particular subject. It can be done in many ways: By being a notable figure in the field in question, such as a college professor or an executive of a company whose business is that of the subject. By having a vested interest in a matter, such as the person being related to the subject in question. By using impressive logos that shows to the audience that the speaker is knowledgeable on the topic. By appealing to a person's ethics or character.
Pathos is one of the three modes of persuasion in rhetoric (along with ethos and logos). Pathos appeals to the audience's emotions. It is a part of Aristotle's philosophies in rhetoric. It is not to be confused with 'bathos', which is an attempt to perform in a serious, dramatic fashion that fails and ends up becoming comedy. Pathetic events in a plot are also not to be confused with tragic events. In a tragedy, the character brings about his or her own demise, whereas those invoking pathos often occur to innocent characters, invoking unmerited grief. Emotional appeal can be accomplished in a multitude of ways: by a metaphor or story telling, common as a hook, by a general passion in the delivery and an overall number of emotional items in the text of the speech, or in writing. Pathos is an appeal to the audienceís ethical judgment. It can be in the form of metaphor, simile, a passionate delivery, or even a simple claim that a matter is unjust. Pathos can be particularly powerful if used well, but most speeches do not solely rely on pathos. Pathos is most effective when the author connects with an underlying value of the reader.
Logos is an important term in philosophy, analytical psychology, rhetoric and religion. Heraclitus (ca. 535Ė475 BCE) established the term in Western philosophy as meaning both the source and fundamental order of the cosmos. The sophists used the term to mean discourse, and Aristotle applied the term to rational discourse. The Stoic philosophers identified the term with the divine animating principle pervading the universe. After Judaism came under Hellenistic influence, Philo adopted the term into Jewish philosophy. Logos is logical appeal, and the term logic is derived from it. It is normally used to describe facts and figures that support the speaker's topic.
From Aristotle we have learnt that there are three modes of persuasion in rhetoric - ethos, pathos and logos. We are all very much aware there is zero or little logic in the bible, and here is it quite clear that there is zero ethos. That basically implies that the persuasiveness of the bible is surely fair and square founded on pathos --- a direct appeal to the emotions of the (uneducated) audience. What a pathetic state of affairs. The authors of the NT appear to have created a new and strange religion using persuasion via pathos.
. The religious authority in the empire at that time, and for centuries prior to the arrival of Constantine and his Bible, was associated with the lineage of various schools and academies which used - in a collegiate and custodial manner - the vast architectural networks of temples and shrines to preserve the milieu of Greek religious thought. Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Euclid and many others were still being preserved by the Greek academics - such as Porphyry, at that epoch. A revival in Greek literature, starting as early as the mid second century with Marcus Aurelius had strengthened in the third century under authors such as Philostratus, is known to academics as "The Second Sophistic"
Constantine culminated the Second Sophistic with the commissioning of an official monotheistic Holy Writ which was called "The New Testament". All other writings were deemed secondary in importantance and relative merit, and many were targetted for destruction by fire by Constantine, who was not averse to fascism.
As a result of these political actions, the New Testament was elevated to the uppermost limits of the political and religious milieu at that epoch. The fascist tendencies of Constantine continue unabatedly to destroy the ancient temples and shrines of the Greeks one by one, and the construction one by one of new Christian churches - or basilicas - overe the top of these sure greek foundations. The City of Alexandria, once supreme in the sphere of architecture, art, scupture, literature, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc, was literally recycled to become the City of Constantine.
Contrary to the written accounts of the heresiologists (such as Eusebius, Jerome, Augustine, Rufinus, Cyril et al) it is suggested that there were no "christian heretics" before Nicaea because Christianity - in the form of the New Testament Canon - was only recently fabricated, perhaps between the years 312 and 324 CE. For the sake of the following argument, irrespective or not if the new testament was fabricated then, it was not at all known by the Greeks. They had never read it.
Out thesis is that the first reaction to the new testament was the authorship of the new testament apocrypha - the "Hidden Gnostic Books" of the bible. Most people think that Constantine decided NOT to include these "Other Gospels", but the argument here is that they did not then exist at the time he assembled the new testament.
The "Other Books" - the "Other Gospels" and "Other Acts" were authored by Gnostic Greeks as ploemical literature aimed at lowering the public opinion and political authority of Constantine's Official Bible.