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Anti-Pagan Laws

Extracts from the Codex Theodosianus (313 to 453 CE)

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Extracts from the Codex Theodosianus


YEARRef.The Constantinian (Christian) Laws against the Hellenic Priesthood; Codex Theodosianus (313 to 453 CE)
31316.2.1Christians shall be exempted from serving as tax collectors and other public duties; replacements shall be found for them.
31516.8.1"Any Jew who stones a Jewish convert to Christianity shall be burned, and no one is allowed to join Judaism. [Pharr also gives 339, but we give 315 because it is listed by Pharr as in the “fourth consulship” of Constantine.] "
31916.2.2"Priests shall be exempted from public service. [Pharr gives 313 and 319, we list it under 319 because it is in the “fifth consulship of Constantine Augustus.”] "
32016.2.10"Exemptions from tax payments and menial public services are granted to clergy, as well as their wives, children, and acolytes. [Pharr feels that although the text states this was promulgated by Constantius and Constans in 353, it may have actually been p
32116.10.1"If the palace should be struck by lightning, customary consultation of soothsayers may follow."
32116.2.4"At death, people shall have the right to leave property to the Church."
32116.8.3Jews are allowed to serve on municipal councils.
32316.2.5"Clergy shall not be forced into participating in pagan practices; anyone who forces a clergyman into such an act may be fined or publicly beaten, depending on his legal status."
32616.2.6There shall be limits on the number of people entering the clergy; people shall not become clerics in order to avoid public service.
32616.5.1Religious privileges are reserved for Christians.
32616.5.2"Novatians are not considered pre-condemned, and thus may posses their own church buildings and cemeteries. [Novatians disagreed with the Church about absolution.] "
32916.2.3Persons entering the clergy in order to avoid public service shall withdraw from the clergy. [Elliott gives 18 July 329.  Pharr lists this as a second date.]
33016.2.7Church ministers shall not have to serve as decurions.
33016.8.2Jewish priests shall be exempt from public service.
33116.8.4Priests (Jewish priests) and synagogue rulers are exempt from public service.
333Title 1"Judicial decisions made by bishops are to be upheld.  Enforcement is to be the responsibility of the prefect.  If a party to a law suit may request the case to be heard by a bishop rather than a secular judge, the request is to be granted."
33616.8.5Jews are not allowed to harass Jewish converts to Christianity.
33616.9.1Circumcised slaves are to be freed.
337Title 4"Jews may not own circumcised slaves.  Also, Jews may not harass Jewish converts to Christianity.  [Two posted years are given, 336 and 337.  We elected to use the later year because it also gives a date.]"
33916.8.6Women employed by the government as weavers who were lead away by Jews may return to weaving.
33916.9.2Jews may not hold Christian slaves.  Jews who circumcise slaves shall be executed.
34116.10.2Sacrifices and superstition are forbidden.
34216.2.11"Minor sons of clergy are exempt from public service. [Two dates are given in the Code, 356 and 342.  Pharr prefers 342 on the basis that Longinianus, to whom this statute is addressed, was Prefect of Egypt in 342.] "
34316.2.8"Clergy shall not have to pay new taxes, nor shall they have to quarter strangers, and shall be tax exempt if they start their own business."
34616.10.3"Although pagan religious practices are banned, pagan temples are to be preserved because they host plays and circuses. [On the basis of the dates of the administration of the addressee, Catullinus, Pharr prefers 342 to 346, an alternative date.]"
34616.10.4"Pagan temples are to be closed, access to them is denied, and violators may face the death penalty. [There are three possible dates: 346, 354, 356.  Pharr offers no insight; however, Bradbury leans toward 346 for the sake of consistency with 16.10.3.  Th
34916.2.9"Clergy are exempted from all municipal duties, and their sons may continue in the church unless obligated by public service."
35216.8.7"Persons who join Judaism from Christianity shall have their property confiscated. [The date is uncertain, however, Pharr tentatively settles on 352.]"
35316.10.5Night-time sacrifices are forbidden.
35516.2.12Bishops shall not have to appear before secular judges; accusations shall be brought before other bishops.
35616.10.6Those guilty of idolatry or pagan sacrifices may be subject to the death penalty.
35616.2.14"Clergy and their families are exempt from paying taxes. [Constantius left Milan April 28, 357, therefore, Pharr believes that this law must have been given in 356, although 357 is also listed in the text.]"
35716.2.13Privileges granted to the Church in Rome shall be upheld.
36016.2.15"Small-time tradesmen shall be tax exempt, more prosperous tradesmen shall not be exempt.  Personal land held by clergy shall also be taxable."
36116.2.16Persons who live especially pious lives shall be exempted from public service.
36416.2.17The wealthy shall not be allowed to become clergy.
36516.1.1No Christian shall have to serve in a pagan temple; the judge who makes such an appointment risks fines or execution.
37016.2.18Policies of the late Constantius are to be upheld.
37016.2.19"Men born as decurions who enter the clergy shall be exempted from recall if they are called after 10 years of clerical service.  If they are called after fewer than 10 years, they are obligated to carry out their public service."
37016.2.20"Clergy and former clergy shall not be allowed to visit widows or female wards if the women's relatives are suspicious of the clergy.  Further, gifts from these women to clergy shall be regulated."
37116.2.21Those who have continuously served the church since before the reigns of the emperors remain exempt from municipal councils; those who joined the ecclesiastics afterward are not exempt.
37216.2.22"Statute 16.2.21 applies to bishops, virgins, and others in service of the church."
37216.5.3Manichaeans and similar groups may not assemble; their teachers will be punished.
37316.6.1Bishops who repeat baptism are judged unworthy of the priesthood.
37616.2.23"Disagreements over religious matters shall be addressed by church authorities, while criminal cases shall be brought before a judge."
37716.2.24"Priests, deacons, exorcists, lectors, and other church ministers are exempt from public service."
37716.6.2"Second baptism and other practices contrary to the teachings of the Apostles is condemned.  Furthermore, places where expelled persons visit may be confiscated."
37816.5.4Alters and worship places of non-Catholic religions shall be confiscated.
37916.5.5Heresies (not defined herein) may not be taught.
37916.6.1Bishops who repeat baptism shall be considered unworthy of the priesthood.
38016.1.2"All of the people shall believe in God within the concept of the Holy Trinity, as taught by St. Peter, and take the name Catholic Christians.  Meeting places of those who do not believe shall not be given the status of churches, and such people may be su
38116.1.3Churches confessing the Trinity must come under the authority of certain approved bishops; those not in communion with them shall not retain church status.
38116.10.7Persons who engage in pagan or superstitious behavior may be penalized.
38116.2.26Guardians of the church are tax exempt.
38116.5.6"Heretics are defined as those who do not observe the Nicene faith.  Their teachings are forbidden. A definition of the Trinity, ousia, is established. Catholic churches throughout the empire are to be returned to orthodox bishops.   "
38116.5.7"Manichaeans may not inherit property or leave it to others through wills.  Furthermore, their burial places shall be obscure."
38116.5.8"It is forbidden for Arians, Eunomians, or followers of Ethius to build churches.  If any such churches are built, they will be confiscated."
38116.7.1Christians who have converted to paganism shall not be allowed to “make testament.”
381Title 7"In celebration of Easter, clemency is granted to the imprisoned.  An exception is given for those who have committed the “five crimes” defined in CTh 9, 38."
38216.10.8"The temple is to remain open to the people, although sacrifices conducted under pretext of public access are forbidden. [Pharr feels that this is the temple of Edessa.]"
38216.5.9"Upon death, Manichaeans must will their property to their families rather than to their fellow Manichaeans.  Secret assemblies are also forbidden.  Further, Easter shall be celebrated by all on the same day of the year."
38316.5.10"Meeting places of the Tascodrogitae are protected.  However, if they attempt to convene at a church, they shall be driven away."
38316.5.11"Right of assembly is denied to Arians, the Macedonians, Pneumatomachi, Manichaeans, Apotactites, Saccophori, Encratites, and the Hydroparastatae."
38316.5.12"Arians, Macedonians, Apollinarians, and other groups outside the Church are not allowed to ordain clergy or construct churches in either urban or rural areas.  Local officials are responsible for enforcement of this law."
38316.7.2Confirmed Christians who have turned to paganism may not issue a testament (will) to anyone.  Unconfirmed Christians may not will their possessions to anyone other than their natural heirs: children or brothers.  The same applies to those receiving proper
38316.7.3"If a Manichaean should go underground and hold secret meetings, he is subjected to the law and much leave his goods to relatives or the government.  Additionally, Saccophori and Encratites are to be punished when convicted.  A system of investigators, in
38416.5.13"Eunomians, Macedonians, Arians, and Apollinarians are identified as having false doctrine.  They are to be forced out of the city (Constantinople)."
384Title 3"Persons who assume the title bishop may not send away or otherwise harass orthodox clergy.  There shall also be, separate from secular courts, a system for ecclesiastical cases.  Bishop Timotheus is specifically named."
38516.10.9Sacrifices and divination are forbidden; violators will be severely punished.
38616.1.4"People who believe in the doctrines of the Council of Ariminum and confirmed at the Council of Constantinople are granted the right of assembly.  However, no one should assume that the right of assembly is granted to them alone; if they disturb the peace
38616.4.1Those who assemble or instigate demonstrations against the emperor are guilty of treason and face the death penalty.
386Title 8"All persons in prison or exile may be freed, except those who face the death penalty for capital crimes: treason, adultery, astrology, and homicide."
38816.4.2Public preaching and debate about religion is banned.
38816.5.14"Apollinarians are not to be in communion with the Church.  They are denied the right to assemble as congregations, and may not ordain clergy or bishops."
38816.5.15"Members of non-Catholic sects are denied right of assemble, are forbidden to have even secret meetings, and may not erect altars.  The emperor appoints officers to identify and prosecute such persons."
38816.5.16"Arians may not use in their legal defense other imperial regulations.  This section asserts that no law has been issued that is in defense or Arianism.  [Pharr notes that Theodosius was not at Constantinople in 388, thus the law must have been promulgate
38916.5.17Eunomian eunuchs may not inherit or leave goods or property by means of a testament (will).  This law applies to all previous wills.
38916.5.18"Manichaeans are to be expelled from the city and their property confiscated.  Property may not be left to them, and they may not leave property; their wills are void."
38916.5.19"Both in the city and surrounding areas, leaders of non-Catholic Christian groups may not hold funeral meetings."
39016.2.27"Deaconesses shall be at least 60 years old and relinquish most of their possessions.  Also, women with shaved heads are not allowed into the church."
39016.2.28Repeals a portion of 16.2.27.
39016.3.1Monks are to live in the desert or otherwise uninhabited place where they may find solitude.
39016.3.2Monks who have left towns shall be allowed to return.  Repeals a prior law.
39116.10.10"Idol worship is forbidden and pagan sacrifice.  Even judges and officials are beholden to this law.  They will be fined; higher officials, however, pay smaller fines."
39116.10.11"No person shall enter the pagan temples or perform sacrifices.  Even judges are subject to this law; if they violate it, they will be fined.  Their staff will also be fined unless they opposed him."
39116.5.20Gathering or assembly of any kind is denied to persons not of the Catholic Christian faith. [This statute was sent as an imperial letter; we assume that its sender was the same as the preceding statute.]
39116.7.4"Profaners of baptism may not give testimony, grant testaments, or inherit property.  They would be exiled as well, except that living among others with reduced status is considered greater punishment.  Repentance is not considered sufficient to redeem th
39116.7.5Persons with inherited rank or status who abandon Christianity shall loose their position.
39216.10.12"No person of any class may sacrifice to an image. Even a sacrifice that does not reference the Emperor is not exempt; sacrifices that seek to know about life, death, or other forbidden matters violate natural law. Veneration of images with incense is ban
39216.4.3Anyone who “should disturb the Catholic faith” is to be deported.
39216.5.21"If heretical clergy are ordained, the property where the ordination occurred is to be seized by the government if the ordination occurred with the owner’s permission.  If it was done without his knowledge, he may be fined or beaten and deported, dependin
39216.8.8Jews who have been excluded by their own leaders but returned by secular judges over may not be restored.  The law commands judges to end this practice.
39316.8.9"The Jewish sect is protected by law.  No regulation may be passed to ban Judaism, even in the name of Christianity."
39416.5.22Heretics shall not be allowed to appoint or confirm bishops.
39416.5.23Eunomians shall be allowed to write wills and likewise receive through wills.  This repeals a previous law.
39416.5.24Teaching of heretical doctrine is to be forbidden.  Judges and other officials must enforce this law.
39516.2.29Laws passed by former emperors regarding the church shall be respected.
39516.5.25Restates that those with “a common religious insanity” may not leave or inherit property or work in the imperial service
39516.5.26Restatement of earlier laws: people outside the Catholic faith may not assemble or appoint bishops.
39516.5.27Eunomians shall continue to be able to execute testaments (wills). [June 24 or December 25.]
39516.5.29"Specifically directs a Roman official to investigate whether any heretics are present in the imperial service.  If so, they are to be removed from service and exiled outside the city as are accessories to the crime."
39610.10.13No person has the right to approach a shrine or temple.  Those who deviate from Catholic dogma face punishment.
39610.10.14Any privileges granted in ancient law to pagan priests and leaders are abolished.
39616.5.31Authors and teachers of Eunomian thought will be exiled from the cities.
39616.5.32"Meeting places and even homes of heretics are to be confiscated by the government, and their occupants expelled."
39616.7.6"People who were guilty of idolatry while they were Christians are not allowed to grant a testament (will) to anyone other than parents, siblings, children, or grandchildren."
39616.8.10Jewish merchants may set their own prices. 
39616.8.11Persons who make disparaging remarks about the patriarch (Jewish leader) are subject to punishment.
39716.2.30Privileges previously granted to the church shall remain in place.
39716.5.33Apollinarians shall be exiled from the city (Constantinople) and those who assemble secretly shall have their meeting places taken.
39716.8.12Jews are not to be insulted; governors are to be informed when such incidents occur.
39716.8.13Jewish clergy are allowed to retain their own laws and rituals and are exempt from service as decurions.
39816.2.32"Should the number or priests shrink, bishops may ordain new priests from the orders of monks."
39816.2.33"Clergy shall be ordained and serve from their own villages or other localities, and under supervision of the bishop, a set number of clergy shall be determined for each church.   "
39816.5.28"Anyone who disagrees with the Catholic Christian Church even on a minor point of doctrine is considered a heretic.  This law specifically names Heuresius. [According to Pharr’s footnote, Heuresius was a bishop in the Diocese of Asia and was involved in t
39816.5.34"Eunomians and Montanists are to be expelled from the cities, and if they reside in the country and should hold assemblies, they are to be deported and the owners of the land they inhabited punished.  Heretical books are to be destroyed."
39816.5.53"Jovinianus, a heretic condemned at Rome and Milan, who had been holding unlawful meetings outside the walls of the city (Milan?), is to be arrested, beaten with a leaden whip, and exiled to the island of Boa.  His companions likewise are to be exiled. [C
39910.10.16Pagan temples in rural areas are to be destroyed.
39910.10.17"Despite the abolishment of pagan sacrifices, public festivals and celebrations are allowed.  They simply may not contain pagan superstition or sacrifices."
39916.10.15Ornaments of pagan temples are not to be destroyed. Anyone who shows illicit post warrants (permission to travel imperial post roads) must deliver them to the emperors.  The granters will be fined.
39916.10.18Temples not containing illicit objects may not be destroyed.  Idols shall still be taken down and those performing sacrifices punished according to law.
39916.11.1Bishops must preside over cases regarding religion. Provincial governors hear cases of secular law.
39916.2.34The Church shall not have its privileges violated; anyone who impedes the Church shall be fined.
39916.5.35The already condemned Manichaeans shall be found and restrained.
39916.5.36"Eunomians are allowed to grant goods from their own property and to receive property.  However, they still may not assemble, and if any of their bishops are found at a gathering, the bishops are to be deported and their goods confiscated."
39916.8.14Revenue collected by Jewish synagogue rulers is to be sent instead to the imperial treasury.
4  16.4.5Slaves may not participate in disorderly public assemblies.  Money changers must also follow this rule.
4  16.8.15Privileges previously granted patriarchs (Jewish leaders) are to be upheld.
4  16.8.16Jews and Samaritans are not allowed to serve in the imperial service.
4  16.8.17A law exempting Jews in the West from contributing to patriarchs is reversed.  [Repeals 16.8.14]
40016.2.35Bishops deposed by a council of clergy are to be exiled 100 miles from their city.
40016.2.35Bishops deposed shall be exiled and separated from assembly.  Their authority shall be voided.
40116.2.36Clergy buying and selling food within legal limitations are exempted from paying taxes on that enterprise.  They shall also be exempt from mandatory public service.
40216.5.30"Clergy of heretical groups will be expelled from Constantinople.  Their meeting places, whether churches or private houses, will be confiscated. Should the Prefect of the city fail to enforce this, he will be fined."
40416.2.37"Bishops from outside Constantinople shall not serve there. Clergy who had been in prison after the riot [according to Pharr’s footnote, caused by John Chrysostom] are to be released and returned to their homes since the arsonists could not be found."
40416.4.4"Office staff shall abstain from wild public processions and activities, and those who violate the Emperor’s will may lose their office and pay a fine."
40416.4.6Assemblies of persons who call themselves orthodox Christians but try to worship elsewhere are banned.
40515.5.39Donatists shall be punished for their “crime” if they confess or if they have been convicted.
40516.11.2"Following the concept of 16.5.38, there shall be Christian unity throughout the empire."
40516.5.38"Worship shall be uniform, and all shall recognize the Trinity.  There shall be one understanding of salvation."
40516.6.3Restates that baptism may not be repeated.
40516.6.4"Donatists, who repeat baptism, are expelled.  They shall have property confiscated, but if they return to the Catholic Church, the property will be returned. Slaves forced into rebaptism will be protected by the Catholic Church."
405Title 2States again that deposed bishops must be exiled 100 miles from their city and may not appeal to the imperial council.
40716.2.38Rights sought by the Church through lawyers rather than through clergy shall be effected.  Privileges already held by the Church shall remain in effect.
40716.5.40"Manichaeans, Phrygians, and Priscillianists are signaled out as heretics. Their beliefs are considered public crimes on the grounds that crime against religion is detrimental to all.  They may not give gifts, make contracts, or buy and sell.  Their child
40716.5.41Donatists and Manichaeans may have their crimes forgiven if they renounce their beliefs and embrace the Catholic faith and practices.
40816.10.19Income from taxes in kind given to temples shall be redirected for soldiers.  Images in pagan temples must be removed if there is any veneration of them. Public use is to be made of the temples. Banquets shall not be permitted for sacrilegious rites.
40816.2.39"Clergy who have left the priesthood, either voluntarily or through the order of the bishop, he shall be subject to compulsory public services. "
40816.5.42Persons who disagree with the Emperor on matters of religion may not be allowed to serve in the palace.
40816.5.43"Laws against Donatists, Montenses, Manichaeans, and Priscillianists remain in place.  Their buildings as well as those of the Caelicolists are to be taken and given to the churches."
40816.5.44It is forbidden “to attempt anything that is contrary and opposed” to the Catholic faith
40816.5.45"Municipalities and decurions are ordered to ensure that dissenting priests do not convene unlawfully, and if they do, their meeting places shall go over to public ownership."
40816.8.18"Jews may not burn crosses at the feast of Purim, and shall loose their rights if they disobey the law, but shall otherwise be allowed to practice their religion."
408Title 12"Laws in place against Donatists, Manichaeans, and other groups remain effective. Income from taxes in kind shall be redirected from pagan temples to support the army."
408Title 16"Persons bought  back from barbarian captivity may return to their home.  However, they must reimburse their purchaser or serve him for five years."
408Title 9Clergy who leave the priesthood either voluntarily or involuntarily may be called to serve municipal councils.
40916.2.31There shall be no public demonstrations against the Catholic Church.
40916.5.46"Donatists, Jews, and Gentiles should not suppose that laws previously passed against them have weakened."
40916.5.47Anyone who opposed or objected to regulations enacted for the benefit of the Catholic Church will have his objections overruled.
40916.8.19"Caelicolists are to return to Christianity within one year of this order.  Also, Christians may not be insultingly called Jews."
409Title 14Persons who have committed crimes against bishops in Africa are to be prosecuted.  Restates that laws against Jews and pagans are in force.
41016.11.3Donatism is abolished and laws regarding the Catholic faith remain in place and are to be enforced.
41016.5.48"Montanists, Priscillianists, and other condemned groups may not enlist in the imperial service.  However, if they are already obligated to the service by birth or another reason, they shall not be exempted."
41016.5.49"Earlier laws against the Eunomians remain in force.  They may not inherit or bequeath goods except to family.  If no family exists, the goods become government property."
41016.5.50Treasury staff will be in peril if they fail to prevent delivery of the forbidden goods in 16.5.49.
41016.5.51Any imperial decree which may have indicated rights for heretics is annulled.
41216.2.40Estates left to the church shall not be taken for public use.  Taxes need not be paid from them.
41216.2.41Clergy may not be prosecuted except before a bishop.  Anyone who brings un-provable accusations against a clergyman forfeits his status.
41216.5.52"Clergy and laymen of the Donatists shall have to pay fines unless they return to the Catholic Church.  Procurators are obligated to deliver the Donatists, lest their estates be taken.  Donatist priests, clerics and ministers shall be removed from Africa,
41216.8.20"Jewish synagogues may not be taken by non-Jews, and Jewish observation of the Sabbath is to be protected."
41216.8.21"Jews may not be persecuted for their religion or have their property taken without cause.  They are cautioned, however, that they still may not disrespect Christianity. [Pharr’s footnote also lists 418 and 420.]"
412Title 11Compulsory public services (public works projects) and taxes shall not be required of the Church.
412Title 15Persons who bring false or un-provable accusations against clergy shall face loss of reputation and status.
41316.6.6"Rebaptism is forbidden. Both the person who baptized and the person receiving rebaptism, if he is of age, are considered guilty. Novatians are to celebrate Easter at the same time as orthodox Christians."
41316.6.7"Assemblies and funeral activities of Eunomians are banned, as are their repeat baptism practices"
41416.5.54Property of Donatists and heretics is to be given to the Catholic Church.  Patrimony shall be taken from anyone harboring heretics.  Senators who are Donatists are to be fined.  Judges shall likewise be fined.
41416.5.55Legal investigations and proceedings against Donatists by Marcellinus [a tribune in North Africa who attempted to settle disagreements between Catholics and Donatists] shall remain standing.
41510.10.20"Pagan priests in Carthage must return to their ancestral cities before the kalends of November.  Also, property owned by the Catholic Church should be retained by Christians."
41515.5.58"If it is determined that repeated baptism or secret assemblies have been held in the houses of Eunomian clerics, the houses shall be confiscated. The clerics themselves face deportation if they have held meetings.  Anyone who allowed himself to be re-bap
41516.5.56Pagans who publicly assemble may have their property taken or even be executed.
41516.5.57"Montanists may not hold meetings or assemblies.  Anyone receiving them will have his property taken.  Montanist churches, but not personal private property, are to be added to orthodox churches."
41516.8.22"An honorary prefect, Gamaliel, shall be deprived of rank and may neither establish synagogues nor judge between Christians."
41516.9.3Jews are allowed to hold Christian slaves provided that the slaves are allowed to retain their Christianity.
41616.2.42"Clergy caring for the sick may not be involved in municipal councils or public affairs.  They must refrain from attending public events, and their numbers are to be limited."
41616.8.23Jewish people who have joined the Christian church to avoid prosecution for crimes are hypocrites.  Judges are to uphold imperial laws regarding crime.
41710.10.21"Pagans shall not become administrators of judges. In fact, they may not enter the imperial service at all."
41716.9.4Jews may not purchase or receive as gifts Christian slaves. Jews may retain slaves who were already Christian or who came under an inheritance.
41816.2.43The number of clergy who were allowed to be involved with caring for the sick in Alexandria is increased from 500 to 600.  They are to be chosen by the Bishop of Alexandria.
41816.8.24"Jews may not enter imperial service. Jews who have already taken the oath for service may remain, except those in the armed service.  Jews are not prohibited from becoming advocates or decurions."
419Title 13"For persons seeking sanctuary in a church, the zone of protection shall extend fifty paces from the church.  Priests are allowed to enter prisons and visit prisoners.  They are also allowed to advocate before judges on behalf of prisoners."
419Title 5Foundlings (abandoned children) shall be the property of those who acquired them.
42016.2.44"Priests may not marry after they have been ordained.  However, they need not leave their wives if they were married before becoming priests."
420Title 10"Clergy may not live with women other than wives whom they married before entering the priesthood, or their mothers, sisters, or daughters."
42116.2.45Religious laws passed in Illyricum remain in place. Any legal questions must come before the bishops and with the knowledge of the bishop of Constantinople.
42310.10.22Previous laws against pagans are upheld.
42310.10.23Pagans are to be exiled and have their possessions confiscated.
42310.10.23Pagans are to be exiled and have their possessions confiscated.
42310.10.24"Manichaeans, Pepyzites, and those who do disagree as to the day of Easter may have their property taken."
42310.10.24"Manichaeans, Pepyzites, and those who do disagree as to the day of Easter may have their property taken."
42316.5.59"Repeats that this constitution denies privileges to Arians, Novatians, Eunomians, Macedonians, and Sabbatians."
42316.5.60"Upholds previous laws against Arians, Eunomians, Macedonians, and other condemned sects."
42316.5.60"Upholds previous laws against Arians, Eunomians, Macedonians, and other condemned sects."
42316.5.61The law that Eunomians are not allowed in the imperial service may not be applied to members of gubernatorial office staffs.
42316.5.61The law that Eunomians are not allowed in the imperial service may not be applied to members of gubernatorial office staffs.
42316.8.25"Jewish synagogues may not be taken or burned indiscriminately. If such an incident does occur, they will be compensated. However, they may not build new  synagogues, and existing ones may not be improved."
42316.8.26Jews are protected from attacks by people acting in the name of Christianity. Jews still may not circumcise Christians.  
42316.8.27"Jews may not construct new synagogues, but old ones will not be torn down.  Other prohibitions are upheld."
42316.8.27"Jews may not construct new synagogues, but old ones will not be torn down.  Other prohibitions are upheld."
42316.9.5Jews shall not hold Christian slaves on the grounds that religious slaves shall not be subject to impious owners.
42316.9.5Jews shall not hold Christian slaves on the grounds that religious slaves shall not be subject to impious owners.
42516.2.46Upholds previous protections and privileges granted to the Church and clergy.  [July 6 or August 4.]
42516.2.46Upholds previous protections and privileges granted to the Church and clergy.  [July 6 or August 4.]
42516.2.47"Restored are the rights of the Church and clergy which had been denied by “the tyrant” (John, a usurper)."
42516.2.47"Restored are the rights of the Church and clergy which had been denied by “the tyrant” (John, a usurper)."
42516.5.62"Manichaeans, heretics, schismatics, astrologers, and others not in communion with the Catholic Church and Pope are to be banished from the city of Rome unless they return to communion within 20 days."
42516.5.62"Manichaeans, heretics, schismatics, astrologers, and others not in communion with the Catholic Church and Pope are to be banished from the city of Rome unless they return to communion within 20 days."
42516.5.63"Heresies, false doctrines, and pagan beliefs are prosecuted, and punishment may befall those who do not repent."
42516.5.63"Heresies, false doctrines, and pagan beliefs are prosecuted, and punishment may befall those who do not repent."
42516.5.64"Manichaeans, heretics, schismatics, and members of every sect averse to the Catholic Church are to be banished from the cities."
42516.5.64"Manichaeans, heretics, schismatics, and members of every sect averse to the Catholic Church are to be banished from the cities."
425Title 6"Clerical legal action must be done before a bishop rather than a secular judge.  Bishops who have been led astray have 20 days to reform or be exiled from Gaul. Manichaeans and heretical sects are exiled from the cities. Jews and pagans may not bring cas
425Title 6"Clerical legal action must be done before a bishop rather than a secular judge.  Bishops who have been led astray have 20 days to reform or be exiled from Gaul. Manichaeans and heretical sects are exiled from the cities. Jews and pagans may not bring cas
42616.7.7"No time limit is to exist for investigation of apostates.  Repeats that they may not give a testament, and their goods must be given to kinsmen, preferably Christians. Also, gifts and testaments will be rescinded for those who made sacrifices after becom
42616.7.7"No time limit is to exist for investigation of apostates.  Repeats that they may not give a testament, and their goods must be given to kinsmen, preferably Christians. Also, gifts and testaments will be rescinded for those who made sacrifices after becom
42616.8.28"Jewish or Samaritan converts to Christianity may not be disinherited by their parents or grandparents because of their new religion.  However, crimes committed by these persons against their parents must still be prosecuted, although parents must still l
42616.8.28"Jewish or Samaritan converts to Christianity may not be disinherited by their parents or grandparents because of their new religion.  However, crimes committed by these persons against their parents must still be prosecuted, although parents must still l
42816.5.65"Churches taken by heretics from the orthodox are to be returned to the Catholic Church.  If clergy should be created by heretics, each the cleric and the person who appointed him are to be fined. Because not all should be punished in like manner, Arians,
42816.5.65"Churches taken by heretics from the orthodox are to be returned to the Catholic Church.  If clergy should be created by heretics, each the cleric and the person who appointed him are to be fined. Because not all should be punished in like manner, Arians,
42916.8.29Annual tribute is to be collected from rulers of Jewish synagogues.
42916.8.29Annual tribute is to be collected from rulers of Jewish synagogues.
43510.10.25Immolation of victims and pagan sacrifices are forbidden.  Pagan temples and shrines are to be torn down and replaced with the symbol of Christianity: the cross.  Anyone who mocks this law faces the death penalty.
43510.10.25Immolation of victims and pagan sacrifices are forbidden.  Pagan temples and shrines are to be torn down and replaced with the symbol of Christianity: the cross.  Anyone who mocks this law faces the death penalty.
43516.5.66"Nestorianism is condemned.  Their books are banned and shall be burned.  Furthermore, their assemblies are forbidden; violators may have their goods confiscated."
43516.5.66"Nestorianism is condemned.  Their books are banned and shall be burned.  Furthermore, their assemblies are forbidden; violators may have their goods confiscated."
452Valentinian"If there is a dispute between clergy but the litigants agree themselves, a bishop may serve as judge.  This applies for lay persons also. Both litigants must agree to this. No person of ignoble birth status may become a priest. Clergy may not engage in a
452Valentinian"If there is a dispute between clergy but the litigants agree themselves, a bishop may serve as judge.  This applies for lay persons also. Both litigants must agree to this. No person of ignoble birth status may become a priest."
5  16.6.5"Donatists, Montanists, and others who may promulgate false doctrines, such as repeat baptism, may be brought before a judge and have his property confiscated."



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Thesis | Mountain Man