Mountain Man's Global News Archive
Great Mistakes of the Physicists
Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia
Great Mistakes of the Physicists
This book intends to show, by reasoning, that :
(2) Mistakes of the kind presented in Paragraph (1) are very so much more prevalent in the physicses known as modern physics, quantum physics or relativistic physics.
(3) If the contents of the book have been able to show some mistakes on the subject of Paragraph (1) and have presented their true and logical substitutes, then the material of the book will look much truer when, in several cases, the book has proceeded to just this act for the mistakes on the subject of Paragraph (2). In other words, if it is shown that many of the cases presented as firm evidence to prove truth of the quantum and relativistic physics have been in fact mistake or at least there have been no necessity to the supposition of their existence because indeed there are firm classical justifications and provings for them (presented in the book), then it won't look logical that these reasonings to encounter excessive sensitivity.
Although admitting this fact that probably the majority of the physics community have been in error for many long years (from beginning of the birth of the modern physics) is bitter, it is logical. Turning back on the logic of the classical physics and resorting to the emotional logics of the modern physics was once interpreted as modernism and removing of fogyism. This book says that we should see the problem conversely and we must take steps to remove mistakes and substitute logic.
For further information about the contents of this book and how you can get it, please e-mail your request to firstname.lastname@example.org addressing to "Hamid V. Ansari".
Hamid V. Ansari
Conductive core of the earth is as hot as causing freedom of the valence electrons after which these released electrons distribute themselves on the core surface and move along with the rotation of the earth causing that magnetic field which forms the big magnet inside the earth. This is summary of the article which also includes presentation of some experiments for testing the validity of the discussion and a conclusion justifying the magnetic inversions of the earth. Based on the presented discussions a practical way for direct determination of ionization energies of different elements is proposed.
2. Compton effect is a Doppler effect
An electromagnetic beam with the wavelength L, which has some energy, descends on an electron and makes it move in the same direction of propagation of the wave. The wave makes the moving electron oscillate with a lower frequency. A very much simple analysis shows that this moving oscillating electron radiates, in the direction making angle T with the direction of the descending wave, an electromagnetic wave which its wavelength is bigger by a factor proportional to L(1-cosT).
3. Optical justification of the deviation and speed reduction of the stars light passing beside the sun
We consider the sun and its atmosphere as a spherical lens causing deviation of stars light and also decrease of its speed in the lens. Such a lens can probably make a multiple image of a star. It is also shown that the sun, because of its atmosphere, is in fact smaller than what an observer measures. We show that the above mentioned spherical lens is non-dispersive in practice.
4. Stellar aberration doesn't contradict ether drag
As we know the Michelson-Morley experiment proves that there is no ethereal wind on the ground. It is thought at present that the existence of the stellar aberration necessitates existence of ethereal wind on the ground if the ether is to exist. Comparison of these two experiments results in believing that the ether does not exist. We prove that if the ether exists, the stellar aberration can occur with the ether drag and then does not necessitate existence of the ethereal wind. A new model in the form of undiscovered tiny particles is presented for the ether. With accepting this model and by using the results of the Michelson-Morley and Michelson-Gale experiments a model consisting of an ethereal stack stuck with the earth in its motion in the space is presented such that the earth can rotate axially inside this stack freely. We shall also see why atomic clocks are slow when are in (fast) motion.
5. Classical justification of the Stern-Gerlach experiment
It is shown that contrary to what is thought the classical physics does not predict a uniform distribution for the magnetic dipoles (silver atoms) in a nonuniform magnetic field in the Stern-Gerlach experiment. Its prediction for a concentrated beam is obtained in the form of a circular surface such that the density of the dipoles is much more near the edge than near the center. Some experiments are proposed for testing the contents of the paper.
6. Obvious mistakes in Electrostatics: capacitance independence from dielectric, dreadful consequences in modern physics, ...
It is shown that there exists a uniqueness theorem, stating that the charges given to a constant configuration of conductors take a uique distribution, which contrary to what is believed does not have any relation to the uniqueness theorem of electrostatic potential. Using this theorem we obtain coefficients of potential analytically. We show that a simple carelessness has caused the famous formula for the electrostatic potential energy to be written as U=1/2 integral ~D.~E while in it ~E must be replaced by a part of it arising only from the external charges not also from the polarization charges.
Considering the above material it is shown that, contrary to the current belief, capacitance of a capacitor does not at all depend on the dielectric used in it and depends only on the configuration of its conductors. We proceed to correct some current mistakes resulted from the above mistakes, eg electrostatic potential energy of and the inward force exerted on a dielectric block entering into a parallel-plate capacitor are obtained and compared with the wrong current ones.
It is shown that existence of dielectric in the capacitor of a circuit causes attraction of more charges onto the capacitor because of the polarization of the dielectric. Then, in electric circuits we should consider the capacitor's dielectric as a source of potential not to think wrongly that existence of dielectric changes the capacitor's capacitance. Difference between these two understandings are verified completely during some examples, and some experiments are proposed for testing the theory. For example it is shown that contrary to what the current theory predicts, resonance frequency of a circuit of RLC will increase by inserting dielectric into the capacitor (without any change of the geometry of its conductors). It is also shown that what is calculated as K (dielectric constsant) is in fact 2-(1/K).
It is also shown that contrary to this current belief that the electrostatic potential difference between the two conductors of a capacitor is the same potential difference between the two poles of the battery which has charged it, the first is twofold compared with the second. We see the influence of this in the experiments performed for determination of charge and mass of the electron.
7. Surface tension or depth tension
It is shown that surface tension is not the reason causing minimization of the surface of a liquid pile. Existence of a pressure inside the liquid arising from the inward intermolecular resultant force exerted on the surface molecules by the liquid molecules adjacent to the surface is shown named as cohesion pressure. A method for measuring the intermolecular attraction is presented which will be also a means for testing the theory in comparison with the current theory of surface tension. It is proved that it is not the surface tension that causes the horizontal wire sliding on the two limbs of a U-shaped wire to be in equilibrium in any position when a liquid film forms the area of the U-shaped wire. In a sure manner, incorrectness of the current relations delta p=4gamma/R, for the pressure difference between inside and outside of a bubble having radius R, and delta p=2gamma/R, for the one related to a solid drop having radius R, is proved. It is shown that the adhesion reduces the pressure inside the liquid, because a part of the liquid weight is sustained by the walls of the container. The mechanism of capillarity is discussed in detail in terms of intermolecular attraction and cohesion pressure. Dependence of rise altitude on depth of dipping and dependence of fall depth on depth of dipping are properties in capillarity predicted by the theory presented in this paper and not by the theory of surface tension, and then can be a practical test for the paper.
8. Logical justification of the Hall effect
Exerting a magnetic field normal to a current-carrying strip we cause a deviation in the path of moving electrons as if our conducting path is a wire along an edge of the stip which at a point is deflected normal to the edge and reaches the other edge and afterwards is continued along this other edge in the same direction asbefore. It is clear that connecting the two end points of the transverse part of such a wire by a minorwire we expect a part of the main current to pass through this minor wire. The direction of such a current flowing in the minor wire is such that as if the current-carrying charges in the main current-carrying strip are positive charges. This is the basis of the paper. A quite practical experiment is proposed for testing the presented theory.
9. Actuality of the electric current: what is believed and what is real
A perfect comparison between a closed circuit of water current and a closed circuit of electric current is made, and Ohm's law is obtained in this manner and it is shown that, contrary to the current belief, existence of conduction current is not because of the existence of any electric field in the conductor, and the linear relation ~J=g~E cannot be valid. The relaxation time (necessary that the current reaches its final speed) and the final speed (drift velocity) of the current are obtained in the above manner, and it is shown that, contrary to what is believed at present, both of them are independent of the chosen standard unit charge (eg electron charge or coulomb) and its mass. It is also shown that, contrary to the current belief, alternating current is steady. We also prove the existence of a kind of resistance arising from the configuration of the circuit. Action mechanism of transistor is explained and a hydrodynamical analogue for it is introduced: both confirming the material presented earlier.
10. Classical justification of the empirical results of the photoelectric effect
It is shown that the empirical results of the photoelectric effect, which is believed that have no classical justification and then can be used for derivation of the famous relation E=h.nu as an alternative way to Planck's derivation, are in fact justifiable by the classical theory of electromagnetism, and then this way can not be a valid manner for obtaining this relation. Using the presented discussions simple justification of the Rayleigh scattering and of the action mechanism of laser are presented in support of the validity of the discussions.
11. Current wrong construing of the Boltzmann factor; E=h.nu is wrong
As we know probability of finding a system in one of its accessible states is proportial to the Boltzmann factor. It is shown that contrary to what is thought at present in this proportion the energy appearing in the Boltzmann factor is not a variable but it is a constant and the variable is the state accessible for the system having this constant energy. So, what at present is accepted as Boltzmann factor is not real. Deduction of the Maxwell velocity distribution as an instance of the consequences of the real Boltzmann factor, and the first deduction of the relation E=h.nu as an instance of the consequences of the wrong Boltzmann factor are presented. A logical review of some of the fundamental elements of the statistical mechanics, that also contains some new viewpoints, has been necessary. A factor is introduced in a general expression for molar specific heat which plays the role of partition (not equipartition) of energy and giving suitable amounts to it all the practical cases including ones related to ideal gases and crystalline solids are covered.
12. Classical justification of the wave-like behavior of the electron beams
Relying on this fact that not only role of the medium (intermediate gas) cannot be ignored in the electric discharge between cathode and anode, but also it is very important, the diffraction and interference phenomena which an electron beam can reveal are justified. This act is done after analyzing the manner in which stroke propagates via the gas valence electrons. In this respect an experiment is proposed as a test. We conclude that the cathodic ray does not carry charge, ie is not a ray of electrons being shot but is a longitudinal wave arising from the vibration of the valence electrons of the molecules of the carrying-wave medium. In this way the mechanism of production of and the difference between the longitudinal and transverse waves and that our longitudinal wave is only due to compression (not expansion) impacts are explained.
Our ability for complete deflecting and making away the electron beam (behind the anode),existence of sharp shadow of anode in the electric discharge tube, existence of dark-bright striated columns in this tube (similar to Kundt tube in acoustics), and the action mechanism of image intensifying in the image intensifier tubes are all described as witnesses to confirm the wave-like motion for electron beam proposed in this article and reject the shooting motion for it.
Deflection of the trajectory of electron beams in electric and magnetic fields is justified in wave-like motion of "going" and "backing" for evaluation of which an experiment has been proposed. It is shown that how for transferring of momentum there is no necessity to suppose shooting motion for electron in the cathodic ray.
Two separate parallel cathodic rays repel each other. This will be contrary to what the electromagnetism predicts if a cathodic ray is to carry charge. This phenomenon is justified by the model presented here.
13. Electromagnetic theory from a new viewpoint
We consider point magnetic charges as the sources of the magnetostatic fields, like the point electric charges for the electrostatic fields. Forms of the mutual effects of electric and magnetic charges on themselves and on each other are presented in the forms of vectorial relations. Using these relations, incorrectness of a usual manner, which eventually leads to the deviation from the classical physics and to the rejection of the Galilean transformations and to the resort to the special relativity, is proven. Static potential energy of a distribution of electric and magnetic charges is presented with a careful view on the actual essence of each involved term; this itself shows a sample of usual carelessnesses existing in the present current electromagnetic theory even in its static discussions. Almost all the fundamental relations in the present current electromagnetic theory are rewritten in new forms by using the fundamental vectorial relations presented at the beginning of the article. In a more detailed argument the proportion of the curl of the dynamic field of one kind (ie magnetodynamic or electrodynamic) to the time derivative of the static field of the other kind (ie electrostatic or magnetostatic) is established; meanwhile the proportion of the current density of one kind to the time derivative of the same kind is also shown. Lenz's law is obtained in its new form. Static and dynamic inductances are presented. By presenting an aspect which views the space full of much tiny electrostatic and magnetostatic dipoles, the possibility of the proportion of the static fields to the dynamic fields is shown.
The way in which the electromagnetic wave propagates through these dipoles is easily explained by using the mentioned fundamental relations, and by obtaining the new form of Maxwell's equations and deducing the wave equations from them, this simple explanation is endorsed. By deducing the dynamic potential energy and explaining its difference with the static potential energy of a set of charges, the Poynting vector is obtained in its new form. It is shown that the fields of an electromagnetic wave are continuous across the boundary interfaces. Fresnel coefficients are obtained in their quite new forms, and it is explained that the coefficient appearing in the fundamental relations showing the relations between two electric and magnetic charges moving relative to each other, mu, must be construed as a world constant. The reflectance and transmittance are introduced in this new approach, and it is shown that the sum of them is identical with one.
14. Cylindrical wave, the wave equation, and mistakes
It is shown that the wave equation cannot be solved for the general spreading of the cylindrical wave using the method of separation of variables. But an equation is presented in case of its solving the above act will have occured. Also using this equation the above-mentioned general spreading of the cylindrical wave for large distances is obtained which contrary to what is believed consists of arbitrary functions.
15. A critique of the definitions of mass and force
It is not necessary to distinguish between inertial and gravitational masses believing that the nature has chosen them quite proportional to each other by chance, and not necessary to believe that the nature by chance has chosen the power of distance in inverse-square forces exactly equal to two, and not necessary that in trying to define mass (and force) to become involved in a vicious circle using presupposition of existence of inertial reference frame which itself requires pre-definition of mass. Newton's laws of motion are rewritten in a logical manner. Some primary models are presented as guides for discovering the essence of known forces. A model for justifying the force between two relatively moving electric and magnetic charges is presented.
16. Franck-Hertz experiment is not quantized
By increasing the voltage in the Franck-Hertz experiment we reach a breakdown voltage in which the current existent between the grid and anode is canceled. This breakdown voltage will be repeated at equal intervals by increasing the voltage.
17. A wave-based polishing theory
The molecules of the reflecting surface are sources of Huygens' wavelets which make the reflected wavefront. These molecules can be nonplanar to the extent of a fraction of the wavelength while yet there exists practically reflected plane wavefront.
18. What the electric conductor is
Action mechanism of a conductor is presented in a simple manner. It is proven that this is not the charges themselves that are distributed in the conductor but their substitutes do this act. Also we conclude that probably the electron doesn't have a size so small compared with the dimensions of a molecule. In a discussion relating directly to the subject of surface tension we see why a net negative charge in a conductor cannot leave it.
19. Primary proof that the torque exerted on a stationary body is zero
In a primary manner it is shown that if a body is stationary the torque exerted on it is zero, while at present avoiding the analytical proof of this theorem, this theorem is presented to the student unprovenly and almost as an axiom.
A1. Solution to four-color problem
To color a given map we first find its related map with the most mutual adjacencies and color it by only four colors, then we trace back.
A2. A proof for Goldbach's conjecture
For a large even number there are a large number of pairs of odd numbers sum of the members of each being the even number. We eliminate those pairs that none of the members of each of them is prime and show that the number of the remaining pairs is still large. The process of proof shows that there can be no drop to zero in the function of the number of the mentioned prime pairs.
There are also several unpublished papers about diamagnetism, force between currents, second law of thermodynamics, action-reaction law, ....
Hamid V. Ansari may be contacted via E-Mail at: email@example.com
Mountain Man's Global News Archive
Great Mistakes of the Physicists
Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia