LogoforMountainManGraphics,Australia

Aether Tectonics

Exploration of a new way of looking at
space and matter and light
by Ross Tessien

Differential Gravitation

Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia in the Southern Autumn of 1996


Differential Gravitation ...

My work began with the nuclear force. I considered sub atomic matter as resonant particles. It was not until after about two months of study that I first saw gravitation and then GR warping of space beginning to come out of the investigation. That was quite a shock to me back then, but it is now absolutely comfortable. What I did and why it should be considered as more than fancy handwaiving is not easy for anyone I have talked to to understand. For that reason I am going to begin with a less complex subject than the structure of the aether and sub atomic matter, namely, gravitation. Before I do, though, there is a small amount of background about how a particle exists in the aether that you must know.

In classical physics and quantum theory, a particle is described by a wave function. This is a mathematical equation that describes how say, an electron is going to behave on its way to a screen after passing through a two slit apparatus. This equation is a function of the electron and of the apparatus, and it is not considered fruitful to try to talk about what the electron looks like as it is an intrinsically statistical wave without real substance. This is why one could never determine both position and momentum at the same time, there is no real thing there to measure.

Fortunately, I did not understand all of this when I began though I am not sure that such a non sensical belief founded on faith would have swayed me from continuing. I considered at the outset that matter is real stuff, and that it is made of real stuff too. This means that an electron really is either here or there, and not a spread out wave that will later collapse. If you think about the view of QM, it really is absurd. You would never convince someone off of the street that what physicists are peddling is so. All I can say about that is that if intuition is a measure, then QM is not correct in other than an exquisite statistical synopsis of a more detailed real event that we do not yet have access to.

In many aether theories, including those of Maxwell, particles are considered as resonant. You can consider this to be anything you wish for starters, but then you will need to justify your choice of geometry and interaction. Many people simply state that this is so without linking the effects of the resonances to one force after another. There is a sort of nebulous, this force does this but then there is something else that takes care of that other force. kind of an approach. With the construction I wound up with, there is just one force in the entire universe, namely, the nuclear force.

One can break down this force into common regimes for the sake of simplifying calculations and in so doing come up with new forces like the electric and gravitation which are amplitude reduced interactions. This is like using Bernouilliís equation in fluid dynamics rather than trying to analyse the trajectories of each and every particle in the fluid flow. The amplitude of the action, or force, is reduced because with increasing distance, there is a reduction in the coherency of the phase angle and/or frequency. The latter arises due to energy arriving from bodies at greater distances and with relative velocities and different gravitational origins of the sub atomic resonances. To simplify this last statement, red shifted extra galactic energy is out of frequency match with energy resonances here on earth.

Technically, as will be shown, the greater the gravitational field, the greater the blue shifting of energy. This means that sub atomic matter on stars actually have resonances that are of higher frequency than the corresponding resonances here on earth. As it turns out, gravitation is caused by resonances that are different from those here locally and this follows at each body in space.

In this chapter, then, we will deal with how and why gravitation arises and will touch on the curvature of space around a body. As an introduction, let me begin with a justification of assuming that particles are resonant. As will be seen in later chapters, it is not this one assumption that warrants our changing our views, but rather the sum of the available information and interconnections that fit what we have observed for centuries.

It is the way that resonant particles are part wave and part solid in this model, and the way an electrons motion naturally gives rise to a new wave shape that can be either a neutrino or a photon depending on the violence of the motion. It is in how the emissions add together like phased array radars we understand giving rise to gravitation from natural and understandable filtering mechanisms. It is the sum of this dissertation that carries the weight that cries out for a re evaluation of our belief in QM, attractive forces, and an empty vacuum of space.

Before I begin with gravitation, I am going to give a first introduction into the concept of resonant particles. Later, I am going to go into these particles in more detail, and later still, I will go into the warpage of space and time in greater detail as well. I have said to many an inquirer over the Internet, if you wish to understand what I am talking about, then you must come to terms with what is meant by resonant nodal structure. An excellent review of these concepts would be to consider the nodal structures of a hologram, and as well, the action of waves lapping on a piece of driftwood and forcing it to shore in the absence of wind (ie, the waves originate from wind far out at sea and the driftwood is in a region where the waves are the only active force pushing the log to shore.)


Justfication of Choosing Resonant Particles

In this section I am going to talk about resonating particles a bit to help you become familiar with what I am trying to talk about. The more fundamental question, however, is why choose resonating particles at all? Why not just select quiet simple pea like particles that sit quietly waiting for some force to act on them? The reason is because such a description leaves out any discovery of what a force IS. Such a description is exactly what we already have and it does not lead to an intuitive understanding of how and why things work in our universe. It is the basis for the quantum mechanical nature of matter being a mystery as one must attrubute bizarre properties to matter and one must believe that matter truly is an equation with no reality of its own.

To me, this seems absurd. Why should particles not be real things just because we are unable to measure them. Such has always been the case at the limit of our determinable reality, and yet as our technology improves we always come to learn that there is more to what we previously understood and indeed, galaxies of stars exist and indeed atoms exist. So why, then, do we forever continue to believe that our current knowledge is firm and worse, fixed? Why do we even bother to attempt to affirm that matter doesnít have a reality simply because we can not today get at measuring it all at once?

Well, I cannot hold to such beliefs and so I set out to determine what particles really look like and why they look that way. To do so, one of the most simple concepts is to attribute to particles a simple pea like structure that is static. Unfortunately for me, without an attractive nuclear force for which no one has ever presented a mechanism, such an object cannot exist. You might have an aether that was like pea soup, but no peas as discrete stable things. If you chose a sphere or any other shape to define a particle, it would simply be a region of space indiscernable from all others.

If you read the section on construction of an aether, then you were exposed to why I first came to consider particles resonant. It was the observation of the organization of the aether into helical corridors of flowing helical quanta that led me to this concept. I noticed that if the quanta ran into each other, then there would rapidly ensue a pile up of quanta where their kinetic energy was transformed into potential energy. This meant pressure greater than the surroundings, and this led to the realization that such a collision would innevitable explode outward to get rid of the excess pressure.

It is what I noticed next that was critical to this construction of space and indeed led to the understanding of the nodal structure or geometry of space that is commonly referred to a Relativistic curvature of spacetime. As the quanta exploded outward, they too ran into other quanta and each deflected the other. When you run the directions and the energies, you find that they deflect each other in opposite directions. This forced one particle to conform to the external shape of the conduction paths, and forced the other to converge back on the origin of the original collision. In other words, a first collision set in motion subsequent collisions due to the exchange of momentum between quanta in the aether.

This is what resonance is all about. What was really interesting is that I did not look for a resonant particle at all. I was simply trying to figure out in what different ways the aeterh quanta could behave. When I blocked their flow, particles resulted. And moreover if you recall the construction of the aeterh as a dual fluid comprising right and left handed quanta and lattice corredors, then you will recall that you do not get just one particle in such collisions, but rather two. Each confined by the opposite helical structures.

So, it is inevitable that if you do not have attractive forces to hold things together, then you will have resonant particles so long as you have an aether that is dense enough to give rise to the complexification and not so dense as to lock up an not allow relative motion (assuming such a condition could even exist, the core of a Black Hole would be where to look). Some of the original aethers I considered were not dense enough to support the organization. They simply remained random as to how quanta travelled through space and I could not get anything interesting to happen with such a construction.

So, we find that fairly early on I came to the conclusion that matter must be somehow resonant. In order to proceed quickly to concepts that might torture and test such a conclusion, I made the assumption that this was the case and set out to discover what kinds and shapes of resonances one might expect to find. A spherical collapse is of course a simple one to consider, but many other geometries are possible just as there are several forms for a double bubble. The former has kept me busy while the latter has kept mathematicians AND me busy.

Electrons seem to fit the concept of spherically resonant particles for a number of reasons discussed in other chapters. Thus far, I have not determined the shape of complex particles like protons and neutrons. However, from a distance, they will appear, as do electrons, as a local region with energy pulsing in and out of it. In the case of these heavier particles, the amplitude of the pulsations will be greater. In other words, from a distance, regardless of what the true geometry of a given particle is, all matter will appear as spherically resonant objects forcing quanta to flow in and out cyclicly.

The intensity of the pulsations I expect to be proportional to the mass of the particle. This means, then, that protons and neutrons are really convergences of what we might call positive AND negative quanta into a common convergence. This does not mean that they mix, but rather that one confines the other in a consistent way. I will address the geometries possible for protons and neutrons later, but you might imagine one geometry to be that of a grouping of double bubbles or that of a double concentric bubble. This is a tremendous simplification as the geometry, whatever it turns out to be, is dynamic and changing throughout the cycle of convergence.

The frequency of resonance is much higher than those we normally consider in electro magnetics. This is because EM frequencies are those of translating particles (ie electrons moving from one valence to another) which take a certain time to move from here to there. The time of travel creates a wave that stretches out from the event at the speed of light. Thus, the longer the time for the event to occur, the longer the wavelength and the lower the frequency. Along this flight path, however, the particle itself will have pulsed a very large number of times. So, in creating a photon of a given wavelength, there are a great number of wave cycles for the pulsation of the electron itself. It will later be shown that these pulsations give the photon definition as a soliton which can remain coherent and indeed pumped, as it propogates through space.

If you consider a spherical particle for simplicity, we can imagine it pulsating radially in the ocean of quanta and this pulsation gives rise to waves that leave the surface of the particle and travel out into space at the speed of light. These are not photons in the classical sense (Like the assumed photons that cause attraction and repulsion. These photons are an assumption and a simplification of the wavelike phenomena actually responsible for the attractive and repulsive mechanisms. And these are not intrinsically attractive at all). These are the waves that give rise to the nodal structure of the aether and to the curvature of space. (A side note is that the rate of pulsation of the sub atomic matter IS what we call TIME. This is addressed in latter chapters.)

In QM, a particle has what is called its wave function as was laid out in the original theories of Schrodinger. He realized that if one had a bunch of waves of different amplitudes, frequencies, and phase angles, that one can end up with a resultant wave in a region of space that is large. As I understand, he tried to apply this large amplitude wave form to particles, where a particle WAS this large resonance in the aether, or the medium of space. Lorentz pointed out to Schrodinger that such a wave packet would be expected to spread out in space and disperse, and this is certainly not what one expects an electron to do. (Well, except in the current version of QM).

I had tried a lot of ideas, but what kept bothering me was the fact that nuclear matter can emit energy after undergoing a reaction such as fusion. If the mass could be reduced, I reasoned, then there must somewhere be a pocket of mass to be discharged. I had been working with simple waves that were analogous to what I later learned Schrodinger had worked on. It seemed to me, with the resonance I was working with, that there had to be some form of condensation going on. This meant some sort of solid core was contained inside the particle, trapped so to speak.

In this case, Schrodingers particle can indeed remain coherent. Consider a particle that is resonant in a fluidic aether that can undergo a phase change like a drop of fog can be condensed from water vapor. If the particle is an under damped oscillator (a reasonable assumption), then if there are small vibrations filling space, they will be amplified by the particle itself just like the amplitude of a child on a swing is amplified by the constant pushes in phase and at the correct frequency of the childs resonance on the swing.

It seemed to me that a particle would be more like a drop of fog which is condensed water vapor. If the quanta involved in the wave form Schrodinger was working with undergo a phase change from vapor to liquid creating a core, then there is a resevoir from which to emit quanta during short lapses in incoming wave energy. There is also a core to define a position for the electron despite the resonant wavelike surroundings. Actually, I was not really trying to define a true position of the electron and didnít care if it had one. I was not aware of the debate over the uncertainty of position and momentum. All I sought was to find the geometry that would fit our observations of sub atomic matter from an energy balance standpoint and from the concept of there being no attractive forces in nature I was working on.

If all of space is full of resonances, all one needs to keep such a particle in motion is to get it started, and then to have the background noise of an amplitude that is greater than the energy lost to damping of the resonance of the particle. Given super fluid properties of liquid helium, it would seem reasonable that the aether responsible for the existence of liquid helium should be even more super. If this is truly the case, then these resonances would travel a very long way across space without being appreciably damped. And this we shall see gives rise to gravitation.

Put another way, if an object has a natural resonant frequency, then it will resonate naturally if energy of that frequency is available. For under damped systems, there is an amplification factor, and if one makes a reasonable assumption that the damping factor in aether is quite low, then a very small amplitude of background resonant energy will be able to sustain the particle.

The core has, as it turns out, another important function. It serves as an energy block which shuts down the velocity of the incident quanta coming in during the compression phase of the particles resonance. Thus, the wave energy will always depart along a radial line rather than just running through at whatever angle.

This has a very important effect on the space surrounding the particle. Namely, the refraction of energy into alignment with the particle. Energy leaving the particle will tend to refract energy out in space toward a radial line of incidence. In other words, a particle, via refraction, actively harvests energy from the surrounding space and forces it to converge on the center of the particle. This same effect occurs in galaxies, and is also how electrons catch photons as they fly through nearby space.

The above concepts are dealt with in more detail in other sections, but with that understanding that particles are resonant in nature, we can now work on gravitation. The particles in the earth are essentially tiny emitters of energy and the sum of their emissions spreads out into space and distorts the normally orthogonal nodal structure into a spherically deformed shape. To come to grips with this deformation (which I believe was exactly what Einstein was looking at in his mind as he described gravitation as a geometric deformation of space), it is useful to review the concept of phased array radar and how the wave fronts add.

In the diagram, you will see that we have a number of emitters of energy. Depending on the timing of emission, we can direct this beam normal to the plane of emitters or at an angle. If the emitters were on a two dimensional surface, then we could emit energy along lines that can pierce a three dimensional space in front of the antenna array. With the phased array system at Beale Air Force Base, two planar arrays of antennae are assembled on two surfaces which have an angle between them of 240 degrees. This particular antennae can track aircraft inside of a 1,200 mile radius with an included angle of around 120 degrees reaching from around San Diego up to almost the Russian border.

So, what would happen if we wrapped the little emitters around a spherical surface, and then sent out pulses of energy that are phase and frequency synchronized as a first cut? The next figure shows the development of a circular wave front shape as a sphere is a bit difficult to illustrate in a book. All of the waves stretch out into space and take on a spherical appearance after one is a ways away from the emitters (a few atomic diameters should work fine).

Now, suppose we consider a particle out in space. It must resonate in tune with the power weighted average of the incident energy surrounding and confining it. There is a regular arrival of wave energy coming from the earth. Further, from the vantage point of the particle out in space unaware that this is a phased array signal that originated from a large number of particles, it appears that the energy is arriving from along a radial line. If we consider the frequency of the wave at this location coming from earth to be f, and the phase angle is taken to be zero as our reference, then lets look at all of the energy arriving at this location with which the particle might want to synchronize.

We already considered energy leaving the earth, so what else is out here? Well, there is energy arriving from the sun at its frequency and the amplitude has been diminished due to the distance, but it is still a substantial component in our surrounding space. There is the signal from the moon with its frequency and amplitude. Note that the sun has a lot more emitters, so the original signal amplitude was much greater than either the earth or the moon, but the amplitude has decreased across space as the spherical shell of energy spreads out. We also see the other stars and planets within our view which each have their amplitudes and frequencies as they arrive. Then, we have a lot of energy that fills the balance of space arriving from distant galaxies which are red shifted from all of the normal frequencies nearby (though remember that a star with its much greater compression of matter has a blue shifted frequency as compared to the frequency of earth and this ought to hold out to quite large red shifts of galaxies.).

Overall, as we look out into space, there is a random jumble of frequencies and phase angles, and there is this one, nice clear signal coming from the nearby earth. So, matter will have a frequency that balances all of the incident power and due to proximity, this will be close to the frequency emitted by earth. Thus, matter will tend to filter out and attenuate all other frequencies of energy arriving at all other phase angles.

In the attenuation process, a small wave of energy arriving from the distant universe at the wrong time will reflect off of the particle, and it will also give a push to the particle. They each recoil away from the collision. An important note here is that we do not have instruments to measure such a small wave form. We are, however, able to observe particles and the way they randomly jump around as they are bashed about. So, we observe a sort of Brownian Motion at a very much smaller scale.

Because we have adopted the concept of an empty vacuum filling space, we claim that the particle itself is intrinsically jumpy or Quantum Mechanical. I am fully comfortable with the random motions of particles, but simply feel they are indeed being bashed about. That we cannot yet measure these sub atomic wave fronts is a problem for technologists to sort out, and I consider myself one of them and am working on the problem.

Notice, however, that the particles will have a preferential direction in which to be bumped, namely radially downward toward the signal originating from the earth. There are fewer bumps from energy arriving from earth than there are from energy arriving from space. So, bump by bump, a particle is accelerated toward the center of the earth. If you wish to be more precise, you can bring the moon into the picture and later other bodies. Energy arriving from the moon will tend to synchronize some of the matter in the object with its emissions. Other particles will tend to precess in such a way that they are resonating at a frequency that is very close to that of the earth, but shifted somewhat toward that of the moon (and the sun and the planets and stars, etc.).

These are the overtones of the wave energy out in space, and the energy is not really random from local sources as they are all affecting each other. This brings the emissions from earth into a loose phase and frequency lock with the other planets, the moon, and the sun.

I cringe when I tell people that gravitation is simply a push toward earth from space that is greater than the push toward space by the earth. Not because this is not accurate, but rather most immediately conjure up an image of particles of aether, or quanta, flowing through space like bullets. This simply is not so if I am correct. We are dealing with standing waves and the best way to imagine these is to note that a surfer on the ocean does not flow in to shore with every wave that passes beneath him. The wave moves through the water, but the water remains essentially stationary (it circles around as the wave passes through, but you can observe the motions of a kelp bed to see that there is no net flow of water toward shore except if you take the tidal actions but this is not what we are dealing with here).

Well, how about a first look at General Relativity as Einstein probably saw it. If we look at the diverging spherical waves on their way out into space, we notice that their amplitude is decreasing as they mix with the energy out in space. Now, imagine a wave trying to traverse a path near the earth such that it would normally miss the earth. As it enters the region of space with the waves leaving the earth, the translating wave of energy is refracted somewhat just like it was in our particle above. This forces the wave to curve toward the center of the earth slightly. As this wave moves in closer, the amplitude of the waves leaving earth are stronger and so the refraction is greater and the wave curves more. This curving of the trajectory continues right on past the earth and out the other side. A wave coming from the opposite direction would experience the same deformation to its trajectory so the process is symetrical.

What about energy that would have barely missed the earth if it went straight? It will be curved in and strike the earth. And, energy that is close to radial will still strike the earth, but it will be at an angle that is closer to radial than if the refraction had not occured. So, we see that a gravitating body in space, just like a sub atomic particle, harvests energy from the surrounding space. And how does this energy show up? In two forms, gravitation and gravitational heating of the body as it attenuates the redirected as well as the otherwise incident energy.

Is there any evidence that gravitational heating is a real mechanism? Well, I believe there is. Two mechanisms that come to mind are the solar neutrino deficit and the solar coronal temperature excess neither of which are satisfactorily explained via currently accepted physics principles. Alven waves are a proposed heating mechanism for the corona, but the amount of energy and the time frame in which it can be created do not match the observed temperature. The corona is simply too hot. Regarding the nuclear furnace, it is possible that the sunís nuclear engine already died out and the heat is still rising to the surface, but this is too much of a stretch to be taken seriously.

If there were a small amount of heating due to another currently unknown source, and if that source came from space and meshed with the sun in the region of the corona, then it would explain both. And, if the mechanism I am talking about is that mechanism, then it will apply itself formost near the surface as arriving waves of energy begin to interfere with the unís matter. This energy continues to be absorbed throughout the volume f the body as you must remember that these waves are smaller than eutrinos and the sun is quite transparent to energy of these frequencies.

What kind of an object in space might be expected to converge an even reater amount of energy in a tight region of space? A galaxy of course. Imagine the shape of the waves of emitted energy surrounding a galaxy ike the Milky Way. They will spread out in a way that creates the reatest amplitude along the plane of the galaxy and will be of lesser mplitude from above and below the galaxy. Now if you run the lines ight on in to an intersection, you will find a region of space that is he focal point of both harvested energy, and as well, emitted energy as uch of the emitted energy of individual stars will converge at the focal enter of the galaxy.

OK, so what, we have some energy converging on a region of space. Well, if the energy density is exceptionally large, then we would expect to find that unusual things take place in galactic centers aside from whatever else might be in the center of a galaxy and indeed we do find strange things happening at the center of the Milky Way. We observe spectra of electron positron annhialation events which begs the question, Where did the positrons come from?.

The attenuation of normally incident energy is Newtonís gravitation. And the addition of the refracted energy is Einsteinís gravitational curvature of space outlined in General Relativity. This refracted energy is like an increase in the density of space itself in the region of the gravitating body. A photon, which is an organized wave, is curved due to the same refraction mechanism as it passes close to a body and we observe this with the gravitational lensing of starlight.

Ross Tessien
There exist in nature, no attractive forces.

E-Mail: tessien@oro.net


LogoforMountainManGraphics,Australia

Aether Tectonics

Exploration of a new way of looking at
space and matter and light
by Ross Tessien

Differential Gravitation

Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia in the Southern Autumn of 1996