Exploration of a new way of looking at
Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia in the Southern Autumn of 1996
Preface to the Works ...
Currently, I am writing a book on my views of the construction of space and of time. Pete has on his own decided to put up some of my works because he sees a chord in the thoughts that he appreciates, and I appreciate his putting these things up on the net. I will try to add some of my chapters as I get them cleaned up and hope to publish the entire book on the net to help proof out the concepts before I try to take the book to a publisher.
Your comments are welcomed at: firstname.lastname@example.org
The following is a very rough draft of some of the chapters in my book. This first section is the preface and should give some insight into what I hope to accomplish.
As I intend to publish this work, I must note that this is a copyrighted work, c 1996 by Ross Tessien.Permission is given for private use and copying.
For 25 years after Copernicus discovered that the math for planetary motion was less complicated if one considered the sun to be at the center of the "Universe", scientists continued to believe that the Earth was still the center but that for some reason the math was easier using a helio centric system. It was not until after Galileo came along and saw moons orbiting Jupiter, and the waxing and waning of the planets as they moved around the sun that the truth could be adopted as reality.
When Brown saw tiny particles of dust in a microscope lens dancing around in a random way, it seemed difficult to believe that he had observed motions of molecules impacting the specks of matter. But 80 years later, that is what Einstein found would be expected when he considered convergent flows of molecules that should now and then conspire to give the tiny "boulder" a push in a uniform direction in the fluid. So with that, we finally decided that we might give way and consider atoms to be real things.
Then along came Quantum Mechanics and reality was thrown out with the bath water. What is not yet clear is whether or not there was a baby in the tub at the time because no one was looking! Physicists erected a giant wall, a barrier between our macroscopic "real" world, and the quantum mechanical world of wave functions. To get from one to the other, you now need a collapse from mystery into observation. Einstein never liked this concept, and I must say, neither do I.
Many people have written about this dilemma in hundreds of books. The vast majority of these try to point out how well the system works, or they point out the debate that raged between the camp advocating QM and others that favored a more deterministic view of nature. One physicist in particular, David Bohm, tried to reformulate the equations used in quantum mechanics to show that it is possible to treat things as though they really did occur, but that there is some underlying nature to space itself that causes electrons and photons to respond in what we observe as a random manner.
This nature of space, was given the name of "Pilot Waves" by de Broglie and this concept was expounded upon by Bohm. With this approach, Bohm showed that one could treat nature in a completely normal way and that the waves along the path communicated to electrons where to go and that these waves had a statistical order to them that resulted in our observing diffraction patterns and the like. The problem is, I have not read any where that Bohm ever gave a reason for those waves to exist. They were assumed to exist and in this, his concepts were not able to take hold.
What difference does it make if you assume that matter is intrinsically statistical, or if space through which matter and photons move, is intrinsically statistical. If you have no reason for one or the other, then they wind up being equivalent from a leap of faith perspective. And physicists were already comfortable with the leap they had made.
I do not want to recap all of what has transpired because many other authors have done a much better job than I ever could on all of that. I could read what they said, and shuffle it around picking out what I consider important, and then write it down again. This is what has happened many times. Though I will say that each attempt gains a little ground on our understanding of what the universe is all about.
I want to do something different. Something that I can do because I do not have a career in physics to worry about my reputation. I want to explore a new way of looking at space and matter and light. I want to give you one possible reason for pilot waves to exist and a reason that matter should interact with these waves. And, I want to put forward a description of interactions with matter that are all a result of a single mechanism, yes, mechanism.
Thus, I will attempt to show what factors are involved in this mechanism and how all forces are the same in the way that they cause motions and action to be exchanged. This in essence will develop into a description of how and why all forces are linked and each "weaker force" is really just an observation of the same mechanism where the amplitude of the action has been reduced. I will attempt to show how gravitation is really just another observation of in essence the electric force.
Now, the above, in the context of treating the actions of nature as "forces", will not be found correct. Gravitation, for example, is far weaker than the electric "force", and the electric force is far weaker than the nuclear "force". What I intend to try to show is how, with increasing separation distance, the single mechanism for transmitting action from particle to particle changes in form and in doing so changes in amplitude.
Briefly, I will treat sub atomic matter as resonant standing waves in an aether. And I will treat "force" as the amplitude of the interaction between two different particles due to the joining of their resonance's. This interaction causes the two particles to move toward or away from each other depending on just a few factors, namely relative distance, relative phase angle, and relative frequency.
The nuclear force, in such a system is an observation of the interaction of two pulsating particles that are so close that they are at the same frequency of oscillation, and they are exactly phase angle matched. This gives you the maximum of action possible in the fluid medium that couples their standing waves.
The electric force is modeled as interactions with a reduction in the accuracy of matching of the particles phase angles. This phase error reduces the effectiveness of the application of action from one standing wave to the other.
And finally, gravitation is modeled as a differential force in essence, where the earth acts as a shield, or more accurately, a filter. Not of gravitons or some flux of particles moving through space, though. Rather, gravitating bodies act as a filter to energy that is frequency shifted slightly to the red as it arrives from outer space and from distant galaxies. This interaction sets up a thrust that creates a frequency gradient in the structure of the standing waves that confine the matter in a body like earth, and fits well into Einstein's concept of geodesics as I will try to demonstrate.
In all of these forces, I must point out what I mean by "frequency" here that will be completely foreign to you. I mean the frequency at which sub atomic matter is radially pulsating like a sonoluminescent bubble. This, is not in accord with current views of physics as there is not known to be any such oscillation of an electron. Further, the frequency of this oscillation, I submit, must be of an extremely high value that we do not and can not measure with any of our devices. And "worse" (I suppose many will think I am assumption on assumption over my head and they may be right. But I am writing the book any way so you may as well laugh if it makes no sense), I am going to put forward that in the quantum vacuum, there is a fundamental frequency of resonance that persists.
The reason is because if sub atomic matter is all resonating at the same, singular frequency, then all sub atomic matter is emitting energy out into the quantum vacuum at this frequency. And to close the loop, if such energy exists out in the quantum vacuum, and sub atomic matter consists of resonant standing waves, then these waves will tend to resonate at this available frequency. One leads to the other.
The impetus for all of this work was a simple question. "How do we know that attractive forces are intrinsically attractive?". It at first seems this is an ignorant question. The ignorant answer is, "Because we stand on the Earth and the Earth exerts a gravitational pull on our bodies. And because we have observed that two magnets can exert an attractive pull. And because nuclear matter exerts a binding energy pull that is tremendous. And because a bar of steel exerts a tensile pulling force which resists our pulling the atoms apart and on and on.
Well, in each of these cases it is true that something is at work that is compelling one body to experience a force toward another body. But I restate the question; "How do we know that the action imposed is a tensile pull as opposed to a compressive push?". The painful honest answer to this question is, "We don't.". In fact, the way mathematics lays out the problem, there is exactly no difference between one way of viewing the mechanism and the other. We use a center of mass, a force magnitude, and a force direction vector in determining all action. Whether the force vector attaches as an attractive pull or a compressive push makes no difference to the calculations.
The only way someone like myself could have a chance to add something to the search for a unified theory of physics is if something stupid like a sign change could actually make a physical difference in the way the universe works. If it is indeed possible to resolve and to unify all of the forces of nature into a single mechanism, then something seemingly benign like this that had been overlooked might have lead to a century of confusion. The reason this just might be the case is precisely because such an error in the sign of a force application has no mathematical consequences, and it is therefore ASSUMED to make no difference on the outcomes of predictions.
For example, if we assume for a minute that gravitation is not intrinsically a pull, then it may just be a differential push. The magnitude of the force would be the same, but the nature would be very different. In this case, we might want to wonder how to build a device that emits energy to offset the effect of gravitation. In contrast, we right now believe that gravitation is a one way force and that there is in this view, no possible way to construct such a device. The result is that we don't bother to look for a way to try.
And yet, recent well documented experiments show that a rotating gyroscope seems to have a different mass depending on if it is rotating one way or the other, or if it is stationary. This seems to imply that either the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass is not a valid concept (which currently is the only conclusion other than the experiment being in error), or, there is a way to deflect gravitational energy. I hold that the latter is the correct opinion and will describe ways to try to do so in the book.
As I see it, this book is my attempt to study the "Complexity" of the universe. By this I mean, I am looking for a reason that the universe and the matter and energy in it would not have been completely chaotic and random, but rather would have developed into a complex and organized, whole that we observe. There are a few key concepts you may wish to review in your own physics texts so that you understand some of the things I will say. Among these are sonoluminescence, phased array radar beam directing methods, resonant systems like a pendulum or a spring mass damper system, and coupled resonant systems.
With regard to resonant systems, of particular interest will be the amplification of a standing wave in response to continued inputs of energy. This need be no more complicated than the pushes you give a child on a swing to increase the amplitude of the motion of the child. But we will explore what happens if more than one person is doing the pushing and with different phase angles and different frequencies of input energy.
As I see it, if I am going to make any positive contribution, I will need to explore and put forward the following information. Why would all of space gained any organization in the first place. Where would the energy have come from to organize the resonance's and to have given rise to a nodal structure to space. And where does the energy continue to come from to maintain the organization.
The why is what this book is all about, the where was the Big Bang originally, and the evaporation of matter, today. This model, as it is turning out, treats the universe as in essence, a giant ocean of aether. We are like fish in the depths looking out. The universe is treated like a very rigid vapor and the expansion of the universe is treated as a constant pressure vaporization of the contained matter. Currently, all of the evaporation is coming from the nuclear and chemical reactions that reduce the mass of the involved particles as they release "energy".
"Energy", then, is treated like either aether in motion, or compressed aether that given the chance to expand it will incite motion. "Mass" is a measure of the density of the aether in a given region of space occupied by a particle times the volume of that occupation. I must say here that a "particle" is more of a wave than a simple grain of sand. If you have read of sonoluminescence, then you have pondered what the bubble is doing.
But I am working on the standing waves that are out and around that bubble in the water. Following the collapse, there is typically a 1 MHz ringing of the bubble in the form of a damped sinusoid. This means that there are concentric spherical shells of fluidic motion that reverse direction every 1.5 mm along a radial line. So, while the laser beams measure the direction and velocity of the motion of the surface of the bubble, they miss the beauty and complexity of the shape and structure of the motions around the bubble.
I will make a lot of references to sonoluminescence in the course of this book just to give you something tangible to visualize. But at all times what I am trying to get at is the nature of electrons and protons and photons, and the like. What I am trying to do is to look into the structure of the quantum vacuum and how matter and light interact with it. This structure must exist if sub atomic matter is resonant, and this concept is completely counter to current views of physics as best I can figure out.
And yet from a qualitative point of view, whatever gravitation and mass and inertia are, it is clear that they deal in the realm of the sub atomic. And whatever the curvature of space and geodesics are, it is clear that they interact with the sub atomic world. What is also clear is that sub atomic matter interacts with sub atomic matter. So there is some form of communication between different particles. In essence, this book is an attempt to look into the inner workings of the curvature of space on the scale of the quantum vacuum. From this, it is hoped that some insight into how to relate all of the forces of nature will come forth.
If this has made little or no sense, don't worry, I don't understand it either. But I will try with as many examples as I can to describe in a concise geometric manner what I am talking about. Unfortunately, my mathematical skills are not what they should be for this discussion. But then we must do what we can.
My intention here is to present this information and this way of viewing the universe so that others already working on these things can compare this geometry with their mathematical equations dealing with string theory and the like. Hopefully, I will have stumbled on one or more points that strike a chord with others more knowledgeable than I.
If not, then this should at least be an interesting science fiction novel as it deals with ways to condense space out of the way to exceed the speed of light and many other interesting things like how we might construct a device to generate a gravitational field. It reaches out into gravitational crystals also known as globular clusters. It explores the concept that we are pushed down by the stars harder than we are pushed away by the earth which is not far from Mach's reputed statement that; "When the trolley car jerks, it is the stars that throw you to the ground".
And I will discuss the concept that a Black Hole is a region into which the aether making up space itself is flowing and condensing. And how later, this highly pressurized Black Hole will explode either via the emission of two jets, or in a catastrophic single big explosion. And the latter form will be modeled as the way our universe got started in the first place which winds up requiring that there be other universes out there beyond the limits of ours.
This book is written by a mechanical engineer with a passion for physics and new technologies. It is not by any means an accepted view of the cosmos so don't use what you read here on any tests in school. I do not guarantee the accuracy of anything inside. This is a book of my thoughts and opinions on the nature of the universe and as such it is a work in progress. It is in the early stages of development and it may be found to be completely in error. But despite that, it is an attempt to bring a modicum of reality back into the realm of the sub atomic, and to show a possible way to tie the electric and the nuclear forces to gravitation.
So, I do not have any idea of whether physicists will attribute any or no validity to the concepts in this book. But I am writing down my observations so that they will have the opportunity to decide. With that, lets get started on this journey of discovery of what our universe might really be like if;
"There exist in nature, no attractive forces"
Exploration of a new way of looking at
Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia in the Southern Autumn of 1996