Exploration of a new way of looking at
Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia in the Southern Autumn of 1996
Attractive Forces Don't Make Sense
Wed, 24 Apr 1996
In my first year of college physics we had a session where we were learning about the application of force to an object due to pressure applied to a surface. The force is equal to the pressure times the area of the surface to which the pressure is applied. In the discussion, my professor brought out the example of a suction cup. He said that there was a vacuum behind the suction cup and asked us what the origin of the force was in the phenomena of a suction cup sticking to the side of a cabinet.
Most of us said, "the vacuum is pulling the suction cup to the surface". Well, he let us hang ourselves. A vacuum does not pull the suction cup to the surface, rather, the 14.7 pounds per square inch of the atmospheric air pressure is pushing on the external surface. What the suction cup does is to keep any air from leaking in behind the cup rather than keeping the vacuum from "leaking" out. This was a very great reversal in our common concept of the phenomena.
For a one square inch suction cup, the force is about 15 pounds and if you took a piece of anything that didn't weigh very much and applied 15 pounds of force with your finger, you could "magically" cause that thing to "stick" to the side of the surface for as long as your patience lasted. That is all our air pressure is doing. It is pushing against the suction cup from the outside and the vacuum is "NOT" pushing the cup away from the surface. Now this seems harmless enough, but let me show you your first glimpse at our pre-disposition to consider things as attractive even when we know better.
My professor went on to describe how two very flat pieces of metal can exhibit the same effect. In my machine shop these are called gage blocks and they are the reference standards for lengths in any machine shop. You can go ask a machinist to show you this at a shop near to you. Two of these blocks can be stuck together by wiping all of the air out from between the flat surfaces in what is called "ringing" the blocks together. The surfaces of the gages are so flat (a few millionths of an inch) that the slight oil film keeps any air from leaking back in between the blocks. They thus can develop a vacuum. This vacuum is so good that you can actually suspend one block of steel beneath the other.
"Now," he said, "if we did not know about the effect of air pressure pushing up from beneath the suspended block, we would think that we had discovered a new attractive force mechanism that is proportional to the surface area and the flatness of two objects". This comment of his hit me like a ton of bricks. If we might have made the mistake here, what if we really had made the mistake somewhere else? I started to explore ways that gravitation and magnets might really be some sort of a shield instead of an attractive pull. I found ways to describe gravitation, but now I had no way to describe the repulsion of two magnets or two like charges. I gave up.
That was twenty years ago. Let me describe another "attractive" and see what you think. The effect is called the Casimir effect and is commonly used to prove the existence of virtual photons. (In quantum electro dynamics it is necessary that there exist virtual photons and virtual particles. These are particles with all of the same properties as their real counterparts, but they pop in and out of existence. While they are here they exert real forces and effects, but they are virtual because they cannot survive but for an instant or two because they must disappear before the quantum vacuum "notices" the missing energy).
If you put some oil on top of water, it can preclude certain wavelengths of light from existing in the cavity formed by the film of oil. This is what the photo is of on the cover of Feynman's book, "QED". It turns out that the same thing must take place between two parallel mirrors. If you were to place the metal mirrors very close together, only certain wavelengths of light would be able to exist in the cavity. Other wavelengths would be excluded. In fact this is near and dear to the constructors of lasers which use two parallel mirrors where one is partially reflective to set up just such an internal reflection. The mirrors are adjusted so that there is an integral number of the wavelengths they will emit.
Now what is interesting is that QM and QED require the existence of virtual particles and photons. As I said, these are real particles that merely have a short life span. Virtual photons must obey all the same rules of normal photons, and therefore if a real photon cannot exist between the plates, neither can a virtual one. If you place such a cavity (two parallel mirrors) in a dark box with no real photons in it, you will measure an attractive force due to the exclusion of these virtual photons. This effect is real, measured, and comfortable for me as well as for physicists.
Well wait just a minute. Did you notice anything wrong in that last statement? I thought we learned that a vacuum does not "attract" the suction cup but rather the pressure on the outside pushes. There is nothing that precludes all of those excluded photon wavelengths from pummeling the outside of the cavity and pushing the plates together exactly like our suction cup and our gage blocks. So how did this effect ever get labeled an attraction?
The answer is because, mathematically, it doesn't matter whether you consider it an attractive pull, or an external push, the plates are still compelled to move toward one another. Because we do not know what is really causing the force to manifest, it is meaningless to debate the difference. Or at least, so goes the standard argument. (We do not know what causes any force from a mechanistic point of view and indeed it is believed that to search for such a thing is meaningless and absurd.).
Well, again, wait just a minute. Our entire goal here is to do just that. We are trying to determine what is responsible for the way things work in our universe. We are trying to discover how gravitation is related to the other forces. We are trying to find out what is really going on and if we lay out the ground work in a way that does not separate between something that is pushing as opposed to something that is pulling, the math will work, but how could we possibly expect to describe the mechanism.
The answer is, we could not. So we need to be careful about our assumptions. It is possible that just as is the case with the equations, that none of this distinction will ever make a difference. But it is also possible that our inability to link gravitation and the other forces has occurred precisely because we have been sloppy about our descriptions of how forces are applied.
This would interject a sort of confusing retrograde motion to forces just like Ptolemy dealt with and Copernicus straightened out. For example, the gluon force is very strange in the way it acts. It is completely backwards from all other forces. Is this because gluons got their job description backwards, or is it because we have our force directions backwards?
So, if we know the difference on simple things like the Casimir effect, lets get it straight. Let's note the mechanism as seems reasonable here and call this a Casimir compression rather than "attraction". Even if this distinction makes no difference, shouldn't we put things in their proper place? I don't know about you, but it seems absolutely clear to me that there is a force from the impacts of virtual photons arriving from the outside that is pushing the plates together because the photons are striking the outside.
I am going to make a tiny note here to remain in the back of your mind. What has really happened is that those photons, or, those quantum vacuum fluctuations, were filtered by the metal mirrors and were excluded from growing in amplitude inside the cavity. We are going to discuss filtering of energy in the quantum vacuum several times, and we are going to discuss a complex organization of the quantum vacuum as opposed to the current view of chaotic energy transfers in the quantum vacuum.
So, now that you have those couple of examples under your belt, let me explain why I do not think attractive forces exist. I am an engineer. I believe that real things are responsible for real actions. I have no problem with Browns discovery of Brownian Motion where molecules of water impact little microscopic dust particles and jostle them about. Atoms make sense to me. Further, I have no trouble with the random quantum mechanical behavior of atoms and sub atomic particles. I assume again that something real is bashing these particles about (electrons, photons, etc.). But consider gravitation.
Gravitation force is given by the equation F=GmM/R^2. This means that gravitation is proportional to the total mass of one object times the mass of the other. Mass, is proportional to the total number of sub atomic particles times their respective masses. This means that the effect is cognizant somehow of the total number of sub atomic particles in the two objects. No matter how you cut it, "if" the effect is intrinsically attractive, "and" space is an empty vacuum, "then" there are little strings of energy or something reaching from each particle in the first object to each particle in the other object and pulling.
Now I have looked under my chair for all of these little strings or rubber bands, but have never seen them. Apparently, each particle in the tip of my finger must have enough strings to attach to every other subatomic particle in the Earth. Since for each of my particles, there are a very large number of strings, and since I can see the effect on space that my particles cause, it seems to me I should be able to see these strings that are pulling me down to the earth. To make matters worse, I need strings not just for each particle in my body linked to a like number of particles in the Earth, instead I need enough strings attached to my particles to link them to every particle in all of the Milky Way galaxy and in all of the surrounding galaxies like Andromeda as well not to mention the entire universe. This concept seems to have a lot of strings attached!
Then I wondered how they would handle being spun in a circle as the flywheel on my car revolves around. Then I wondered about binary stars rotating around each other. Think of the strings that would be reaching from my finger to a distant rotating pair of stars. Surely these strings would get tied in a knot and snap. At this point I said enough is enough. I don't see them, and if they were that small, then maybe they don't exist.
And yet, our bodies are made of a bunch of atoms that are like separate marbles. And even those atoms are almost entirely empty space with a tiny nucleus, and then way far away tiny electrons out in a valences. Our matter is really more like a gas than it is like a solid object. And all of these atoms can fly around and some of them move right on past each other as I flex the muscles on my fingers to type this paragraph.
So, I wondered, what if instead of strings, all of those trajectories were just that, directions in which some form of substance can flow. And what if the Earth somehow was more of a shield than a ball of rubber bands. What if I am being pushed down, instead of being pulled down? Well, Feynman considered such a case given enough energy to explain gravitation and it seems that he demonstrated that the interference would slow the planets down more than is observed and so he ruled this out as a possibility.
Remember, though, that we have outlawed ALL attractive forces. We will shortly find that this includes the nuclear binding energy as well. When we eliminate that we have just one choice to avoid a large explosion, namely, a highly pressurized aether. This is normally called the Quantum Vacuum today. I will simply call the medium an aether following the old beliefs and terminology. What I hope to demonstrate below is that if we make this assumption, then it follows that matter is confined by this aether in a resonant manner. And it is also demonstrated how there can be organized, complex, resonance's in the aether as opposed to the current belief that the vacuum is just a chaotic random mess. I will also try to show that if this is the case, then matter would be super-conductive through such an aether just as are electrons in a superconductive ceramic.
As I will try to develop, I do not think that we experience a flux of particles, or so called gravitons. Rather, I think we live in an organized quantum vacuum that has a nodal structure to it that is in essence a bunch of fluidic standing waves. The shape of these waves is distorted locally due to emissions from resonant sub atomic matter nearby and far away (time delayed for transit). This quantum vacuum structure of standing waves is what gives rise to gravitation, electric, weak, and nuclear forces.
Each and every force will be shown to be a result of the same mechanism, though there are very specific distances at which the intensities and geometry's of the nodes are altered. These are due to the way the wave energy is conducted through the quantum vacuum and the nodes and so we observe differing amplitudes of interaction between particles at different distances. And finally, gravitation and inertia will be presented as our interaction with energy arriving from the universe, rather than any gravitons sent out from the earth.
Rather than describe gravitation as a "shielding" effect as was analyzed by Feynman, I will try to make a distinction in the interaction of the arriving wave energy by calling gravitation a "filtering" mechanism. Where matter acts like a frequency band pass filter of sub atomic resonant wave energy in the organized quantum vacuum. The organization of the nodal structure will be shown to give rise to a spherical distortion to the space around a body. And this will be shown to be the result of the emissions of sub atomic matter here locally.
One of the key things to take care of in any "shielding" theory for gravitation is how you are going to get rid of the energy you shielded. This is because due to Einstein's equation E=mc^2, we know that if we absorb energy that the mass of the earth should increase. But this does not happen, so there must be some emission of energy for any absorption. When you account for this, one would normally jump to the conclusion that one could not wind up with gravity because if you have the same amount of energy absorbed and then emitted by a body, then through us and our space craft will flow the same amount of energy directed toward and away from the earth.
This means that there should be no net thrust on the space craft and therefore, no gravity. However, if matter is like a band pass filter that absorbs energy at interfering frequencies, and then emits energy in a specific frequency, this is a shift in the quality of that energy. And it is, possible, to have a material be more transparent to one form of energy than to another. So as a brief introduction to our future discussions on gravitation, we are absorbing red shifted energy which interferes with our sub atomic resonance's here on earth and then we are emitting energy at our natural resonant frequency.
Thus, energy arriving from distant galaxies in relative motion to our location applies a greater thrust than does energy exiting the earth that is in frequency match with our particles at the quantum vacuum fluctuation level. This allows the energy leaving the earth to pass through us with a great deal of transparency, while we filter energy arriving from distant galaxies as that energy beats with our resonance's.
Beating is when two waves of energy are at slightly different frequencies. The phase angles of the waves move from being aligned to being out of step and this causes an interference. Such an interference in coupled oscillators is known to be absorbed and canceled out by a compromise frequency. This leads to things like two pendulums coupling their frequency if placed on a wall next to each other and adjusted to be close enough in their natural resonant frequencies.
So in words near those of Mach, it is the stars that push us down harder than the Earth pushes us away. The difference in these forces is what we call gravitation. And the amplitude of the component pushing us away is the same as the electric force. When we measure gravitation, we only measure the difference between the incident and the emitted energy of the earth, and we consider this to be the entire mechanism.
This is a difficult introduction to a difficult concept. The concept to most of us is as foreign as believing the Earth was not flat to our ancestors. I am going to present the concept in a number of ways to try to help the ideas come across. Do not expect to understand what I am saying right away. And if you find something you believe is incorrect, play devil's advocate with yourself and try to find a way your belief is incorrect. At this point Nearly everyone is thinking of the statement of sub atomic resonance's and it makes no sense.
You are likely thinking I mean "at a variety of random and chaotic frequencies". I do not. What I mean is that there is a fundamental frequency of resonance of the quantum vacuum, and that sub atomic matter is pulsing in cadence with this incident energy. I precisely mean that the average distance from node to node in the quantum vacuum is what we know as length, and the average period of a pulsation of a standing wave in the quantum vacuum in a region of the universe is what we know as time.
Exploration of a new way of looking at
Web Publication by Mountain Man Graphics, Australia in the Southern Autumn of 1996